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MensajeTema: grupo A Nubia   Jue Mayo 08, 2014 2:07 am

NUBIAN A-GROUP AND EGYPTIAN NAQADA TRADE RELATIONS IN THE PREDYNASTIC
by
Mitchell David Running


http://www.google.es/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CDwQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fminds.wisconsin.edu%2Fbitstream%2Fhandle%2F1793%2F64714%2FRunning_Mitchell_Thesis.pdf%3Fsequence%3D1&ei=RklrU_HzO8aX1AWWo4CADw&usg=AFQjCNFTUyFNV4Wp7NiDnKpSr5s7Agh0oA&bvm=bv.66330100,d.d2k

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MensajeTema: Re: grupo A Nubia   Jue Mayo 08, 2014 2:11 am




The A-Group was the first powerful culture of northern Nubia








https://oi.uchicago.edu/museum/nubia/agroup.html
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MensajeTema: Re: grupo A Nubia   Jue Mayo 08, 2014 2:12 am

Hunting for the Elusive Nubian A-Group People

The people that lived in Lower Nubia--the region between the First and the Second Cataract of the Nile and the surrounding deserts--during predynastic times are called the A-Group. Their main activity along the Nile was agriculture, but in the deserts they herded cattle. They also brought exotic goods from the Sudan and Nubia to Egypt, and this trading activity apparently made some of them very rich and powerful. Along the Nile their settlements and cemeteries are clustered in strategic areas, mostly in connection with transport routes through the desert. The chiefs at the top of their society were represented similarly to the early pharaohs of Egypt. At the royal cemetery at Qustul near Abu Simbel, one of the main centers of A-Group culture, the rulers are shown wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt. The elite graves there are long rectangular shafts cut into the bedrock with a side chamber sealed by a big stone slab. Surrounding the graves were cattle burials. A grave similar to this was found in the elite cemetery at Hierakonpolis (HK6, Tomb 2), and it's also surrounded by cattle burials.

A few sherds of the distinctive A-Group pottery have been recorded at Hierakonpolis, particularly in the extensive cemetery by the Enclosure of Khasekhemwy, where more than a century ago French archaeologist Henri de Morgan discovered graves containing the complete A-Group bowls now in the Brooklyn Museum. Nubian pottery has also been reported from the Main Deposit in the floodplain town of Nekhen and at the predynastic temple (HK29A).

One of this season's projects was to explore evidence for interaction between the Nubian A-Group and predynastic Egypt, especially at Hierakonpolis. The southernmost major town of predynastic Egypt, Hierakonpolis was probably an early capital city of Upper Egypt. It can be reached from Nubia following both valley and desert routes. To the west, many tracks go straight to the Khargha and Dakhlah oases, while to the east the Wadi Barramiya connects the Hierakonpolis area directly to the Red Sea coast and southward to the gold-rich regions of Atbai-Wadi Allaqi.

Our present work has been organized in two different parts. The first was devoted to the study of Nubian sherds from previous excavations in order to determine if they were A-Group and to which phase they belonged. The second included a survey of localities where Nubian sherds had been found or we supposed they might be. Each morning I walked over the site with my long-suffering companion and guardian, Gamal. Together we would search the pottery-covered surface for clues of Nubian presence. Our main goal was to find an A-Group cemetery (as we have for the later Nubian C-Group) or a campsite. Unfortunately, it seems that neither are present at Hierakonpolis. However, we weren't completely unsuccessful. A handful of sherds were recovered and study of the pottery revealed different phases of A-Group interaction spanning several centuries.

So they were here, and their artifacts can be still found in the predynastic settlements and cemeteries, if only in low percentages compared to the unbelievable amount of local pottery. But we found no evidence for a real A-Group site or long-term presence here. This result actually fits well with what we know from the other Upper Egyptian sites. Up to now, it is only at Armant, just south of Luxor on the west bank, that what may be A-Group campsites and maybe a cemetery (but this is doubtful) have been found.

A possible explanation for this is that A-Group society was so similar to that in predynastic Upper Egypt that there was a kind of equilibrium between them. These Nubian people were not living in the shade of the predynastic Egyptians, nor were they subservient to them in a colonial way. They had no need to leave their home in order to find food or employment in the big city. Given the growing desire for exotic goods like the obsidian from the temple, A-Group Nubians likely came to Egypt for transactions!
http://interactive.archaeology.org/hierakonpolis/nubian.html
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MensajeTema: Re: grupo A Nubia   Jue Mayo 08, 2014 2:13 am



Early A-Group pottery fragments from Hierakonpolis. Our knowledge of this phase is still limited and the examples found at Hierakonpolis provide useful information as most of the evidence for the Early A-Group has been lost beneath Lake Nasser, following the building of the first Aswan dam








Middle and Terminal A-Group pottery from Hierakonpolis is made of the typical Nubian dung-tempered fabric. Because the A-Group people were mostly cattle herders, they commonly used cattle dung temper in their pottery.




http://interactive.archaeology.org/hierakonpolis/nubian.html


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MensajeTema: Re: grupo A Nubia   Jue Mayo 08, 2014 2:14 am





The cultural attribution of some of the pottery at Hierakonpolis is still uncertain because of the peculiar, very fine sand and ash tempered fabric they all have. Since most of the sherds have rippled decoration on surface, as well as a black top, they can belong to either the Badarian, Upper Egypt's earliest settled culture (ca. 4500 B.C.) or the Early A-Group cultures. This is a big question. Early A-Group pottery is still not well known, but Badarian pottery has never securely been found in the Hierakonpolis region and in the southern part of Upper Egypt. Data from new excavations at the later Nubian site at Hierakonpolis (HK64) may help us to find the answer.




http://interactive.archaeology.org/hierakonpolis/nubian.html


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MensajeTema: Re: grupo A Nubia   Jue Mayo 08, 2014 2:17 am

http://www.ancientsudan.org/burials_02_early.htm


Early Burials: A-Group and C-Group



The A-Group:
The A-Group was a culture in Lower Nubia that flourished from about 3100 to 3000 BC.1 The A-Group graves included elaborate traces that belonged to rulers, priests, and other high class members of the society. In one of those grave, the deceased was found wrapped in hides accompanied with a fan of ostrich feathers, a leather cap, a wooden bowl, as well as some unidentified items. Graves that belonged to lower classes, on the other hand, were abundantly found.

Female figurine from Halfa Degheim. A-Group. Originally courtesy of the Scandinavian Expedition and the Khartoum National Museum.�Source: Wildung, Dietrich. Sudan: Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile.

Nubian figurine

Most of the A-Group burials, excavated at Sayala and Qustul and elsewhere, were positioned on sub-rectangular or oval pits. In a large cemetery south of Wadi Halfa in Sudan, the grave sizes ranged between 3.54 m2 and 1.62 m2. The A-Group graves, especially those of the rich, were roofed with dried mud and stone slab, which helped to protect the goods inside them. The dead bodies were usually found in a straight position with hands away from the face, which indicated the existence of common traditions that are shared by members of the culture. At el-Kadada in Sudan,2 goat skeletons were abundantly uncovered inside graves, which indicates that the A-Group had adopted a herding life style.

Storage vessel from Aksha. A-Group. Originally courtesy of the Mission Arch�ologique Franco-Argentine and the Khartoum National Museum. Source: Wildung, Dietrich. Sudan: Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile.

Nubian prehistory

The most common and astounding type of finding for this culture is pottery. Pottery is usually found placed beyond head of the deceased. The A-grave cemeteries indicate the existence of ritual ceremonies. Breaking pottery and sacrificing animals on top of graves were among the rituals adopted by the A-Group and continued through the ancient history of Nubia.

Jars with black-colored tops and incised designes, and bowls with cross-hatchings and geometric shapes are among the most common types of A-Group pottery decorations. Imported pottery from southern Egypt, Lower Egypt, and Syria were abundantly found in A-Group cemeteries. Lower Egyptian artifacts, on the other hand, were rarely found in A-Group graves.

At Qustul, elite graves were excavated in considerable amounts, however; most important of the findings was an incense burner dated to about 3000 BC.3 The incise burner has a scene on it depicting a figure riding a boat and wearing a fake beard typical of that used later by the pharaohs of Kush. The incese burner provides the earliest dated finding for the existence of kingship in Lower Nubia.

At El Ghaba, Kadero, Sayala, and various other sites in the North Sudan, wealthy A-Group cemeteries where excavated and grave goods were found in profound numbers.4
The C-Group:
Female figurine from Shirfadik. C-Group. Originally courtesy of the Scandinavian Expedition and the Khartoum National Museum. Source: Wildung, Dietrich. Sudan: Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile.



The C-group (2200- 1500 BC),5 contemporary with the Kerma culture in Sudan , settled in Lower Nubia and like the A-Group, our information on the C-Group mainly comes from grave finds.

Graves of the C-Group people were unique in building circular superstructures made out of cut masonry and filled with sand and gravel. The C-Group graves also included a mud-brick chapel where deposits of sacrificed animals were found.

Most of the burials of the C-Group members were body positioned facing east. In the Middle kingdom the orientation of the deceased head was changed to west.

A cylindrical wall built of stones and dried-mud roofed and roofed with hay. During the Second Intermediate period a mud-brick chapel was sometimes added to the northern side of the structure.

C-Group Pottery was designed with incised and complex designs that share close similarities with the Khartoum Neolithic pottery. The C-Group period also shows strong influence from the southern culture of Kerma. Black topped and red polished C-Group pottery indicated influences from the earlier Kerma culture. Egyptian pottery was also found in C-Group graves and indicated trade. In 2000 BC Egypt conquered Lower Nubia, and therefore the C-Group. This explains the reason that no weapons were found in C-Group graves.

1 H. A. Nordström , "Neolithic and A-Group Sites", The Scandinavian Joint Expedition to Sudanese Nubia 3, (Stockholm, 1972).
2 J. Reinold, Arch�ologie au Soudan � Les civilisations de Nubie, ed. Errances (Paris, 2000).
3 B. B. Williams, The A-Group Royal Cemetery at Qustul: Cemetery L. Chicago: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (1986).
4 F. Geus, "Excavations at El Kadada and the Neolithic of the central Sudan", Origin and Early Development of Food-Producing Cultures in North-Eastern Africa, ed. L. Krzyzaniak, and M. Kobusiewicz (Poznan, 1984).
5 M. Bietak, Ein Beitrag zur Fr�hgeschichte Unternubiens zwischen 2200 und 1500 vor Chr. (Berichte des Österreischen National Komitees der UNESCO- Aktion f�r die Rettung der Nubischen Altert�mer, V), (Wien, 1968).
Authored: 2004.
Edited: Mar. 2009.









Female figurine from Halfa Degheim. A-Group. Originally courtesy of the Scandinavian Expedition and the Khartoum National Museum.�Source: Wildung, Dietrich. Sudan: Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile


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MensajeTema: Re: grupo A Nubia   Jue Mayo 08, 2014 2:58 am

http://www.hartford-hwp.com/image_archive/ta/tae.html



The Archaic Mode of Production:
Archaic Nile Valley
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MensajeTema: Re: grupo A Nubia   Hoy a las 7:09 am

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