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 Esmendes I

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MensajeTema: Esmendes I   Miér Oct 22, 2014 12:36 am

Hedyjeperra Setepenra Nesbanebdyedet Meryamón, o Esmendes fue el fundador de la dinastía XXI de Egipto; gobernó de ca. 1069 a 1043 a. C.1 Con este faraón comienza la época denominada por los historiadores Tercer periodo intermedio de Egipto
Esmendes, militar de origen libio, fue nombrado chaty del Bajo Egipto por Ramsés XI. Tomó el trono después de enterrar a Ramsés XI en el Bajo Egipto, el territorio que ya controlaba en vida de éste, ejerciendo gran influencia en el Egipto Medio. El Alto Egipto quedaba bajo el dominio del sumo sacerdote de Amón.

Posible hijo (o hermano) de Herihor y su esposa Nedyemet; se casó con Tentamón (hija de Ramsés XI) y Muthedyem, naciendo de la primera, Henuttauy, y de la segunda el futuro rey Psusennes I. Julio Africano comentó, copiando a Manetón, que Smendes reinó 26 años.

En su época se origina una revolución religiosa en Tanis, llamada la "guerra de los impuros", que supondrá el abandono del culto a Seth para recuperar la tríada tebana de Amón, Mut y Jonsu.
Esmendes encarna un papel destacado en el relato de Unamón, fechado el año 5.º de la era de Uhm Mesut (o año 23.º de Ramsés XI) como personaje de gran importancia. Unamón indica que tuvo que visitar Tanis y presentar personalmente sus cartas de acreditación a Esmendes para recibir el último permiso para viajar al norte del actual Líbano y conseguir madera de cedro para uso en el gran templo de Amón en Tebas. Esmendes respondió consignando un barco para los viajes de Unamón a Siria y Oriente Próximo.
El sumo sacerdote Menjeperra suprimió una rebelión en Tebas en el año 25º de un rey, que solo puede ser Esmendes, pues no hay evidencia de que los sumos sacerdotes contaron sus propios años de reinado, aún cuando ellos se adjudicaron títulos reales, como hizo Pinedyem. Menjeperra exilió a los líderes de la rebelión a los oasis occidentales del desierto, como la estela del destierro de Menjeperra muestra. Fueron perdonados varios años después, durante el gobierno de su sucesor, Amenemnisu.

Esmendes fue enterrado en Tanis. Le sucedió su hijo Neferjeres


Ordenó reparar el muro que rodeaba el templo de Montu, en Karnak.

Es citado en:
Una estela encontrada en una cantera cercana a Gebelein.
El papiro de Moscú 120
Su nombre egipcio era Nesbanebdyed pero se tradujo al griego como Smendes por escritores posteriores como Sexto Julio Africano y Flavio Josefo.

Su nombre de trono: Hedyjeperra Setepenra/Setepenamon, que significa ‘brillante es la manifestación de Ra, Elegido de Ra/Amón’, fue muy popular en las siguientes dinastías, la vigésimo segunda y vigésimo tercera. Lo adoptaron cinco reyes: Sheshonq I, Sheshonq IV, Takelot I, Takelot II y Horsiese I.
Ruinas DE tANIS




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MensajeTema: Re: Esmendes I   Dom Dic 14, 2014 12:55 am

Estela de Smendes

Stela of King Nesbanebded (Smendes I)
commemorating the re-opening of the quarry at Gebelein


Stela of King Nesbanebded (Smendes I)
commemorating the re-opening of the quarry at Gebelein

1 & 2 (Titulary of Nesbanebded)
3 Now his majesty being in the city of Haiku-ptah, his august residence, victorious and strong as Ra, [in order to perform his devotion to Phtah] 4 the master of Ankhtoui, to Sokhit, the great beloved one of Ptah, [to Tumu-Khopri], to Montu, and to the circle of nine gods who reside in Hait-saru, while his majesty was seated in his audience-chamber [a messenger came to declare before] 5 his majesty: "It is the arm of southern water, situated on the border of the Apit of the South, dug by king Thothmes III, which proceeds [to ruin, for it is being drained away, and] 6 forming a great torrent which deeply channels (the ground) as far as the great opisthodoma of the temple extends to the back [of the building." - This stela was discovered by Georges Daressy at Dababieh, a few kilometres south of Thebes.
-Smendes I:Nesbanebded Miamun (Hedjkheperre-setpenre) (c. 1070 - 1043). He was the founder of the 21st Tanite dynasty and contemporary of Herihor.
-Haikuphtah: H.t-kA-ptH, i.e. Memphis, whence was possibly derived the Greek name of Egypt, Aigyptos.
-Ankhtoui: Ankh-tawy Quarter in Memphis where the temples were located.
-Tumu-Khopri: Atem-khepri, the rising sun.
-Montu: Theban god of war.
-circle of nine gods: the Ennead. Theoretically nine gods, generally referring to all the local gods.
-Hait-saru: Hait-sa-re The Castle-of-the-Son-of-Re, ancient Re temple at Heliopolis
-Apit of the South: Opet, i.e. Thebes.
-Thothmes III: Thutmose III Menkhepere (c. 1504-1450)

His majesty said] 7 to them: "These words which you utter before me, there has been nothing in my time which has happened like them without my being informed of them [and without my having] 8 remedied the mischief which they describe. If then this arm of water which nourishes the quarter during the (proper) season of the year [has done this mischief, it has happened} 9 without my knowledge, and all this has taken place apart from the sovereign." -remedied the mischief which they describe: Maspero: lit. [not] reconstructing that violence

His majesty then caused [workmen to be summoned] 10 (and) with them 3000 men selected from the serfs of his majesty, and his majesty gave commandment before them that they should hasten to the [country of the south, to look for a quarry in the] 11 mountain. Now the workmen of his majesty, from among those who are always at bis feet, despatched a number of [persons who knew the country, in order to] 12 examine [the mountain. Now no one had] worked in this quarry since the time of long-past generations, until the present period of Aniti. [So they remained there, and restored ?] 13 the chapel of the goddess Monit, the lady of Zoriti, then they executed that command which his majesty had established [about replacing those whom the work had] 14 worn out in the limbs, each month. When the orders of the king arrived, urging the prosecution of the works which, he had commanded [the people of the country assembled without limitation] 15 of number, even the infants on the breast of their mother ran to cut [the stone for the "buildings of his majesty. -serfs of his majesty: Maspero: signifying "king's men" from whom compulsory labour was extracted in all departments of agricultural service, tillage, irrigation, cleaning out canals etc.
-who are always at bis feet: Maspero: always at his disposal
-Aniti: The two mountains, in Arabic Gebelein
-Zoriti: Town about a dozen kilometres south of Thebes
-even the infants on the breast of their mother: There were no child-minders. Unless a drafted mother had a daughter big enough to look after her babies, she had to take all her children with her to the quarry.

Never] 16 had anything happened like it in the time of (our) ancestors. Then his majesty came in his turn, like Thoth [who benefits by his acts, and gave rewards to the workmen] 17 for their cleverness, by way of recompense for their energy and courage, lifting himself up on the throne of the Horus [of the living, even he king Nsbindidi who gives life like Ra for ever]. -his majesty came in his turn: The king resided at Memphis and ordered the repair work to be done in Upper Egypt. He was thus in charge of the whole country.
-Nsbindidi: Smendes I Nesbanebded


G. Maspero, A Stele of King Smendes
A.H. Sayce ed. Records of the Past, Vol. V,
S.Bagster and Sons, London, 1891

http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/texts/stela_of_smendes.htm
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