egiptomaníacos2007

Historia del Egipto Faraónico
 
ÍndicePortalFAQBuscarRegistrarseMiembrosGrupos de UsuariosConectarse

Comparte | 
 

 INVESTIGATION OF THE THREE MUMMIES IN THE SIDE CHAMBER OF TO

Ver el tema anterior Ver el tema siguiente Ir abajo 
AutorMensaje
Semíramis
Admin


Cantidad de envíos : 45909
Localisation : KV 43
Fecha de inscripción : 10/06/2007

MensajeTema: INVESTIGATION OF THE THREE MUMMIES IN THE SIDE CHAMBER OF TO   Lun Feb 01, 2016 7:36 am

INVESTIGATION OF THE THREE MUMMIES IN THE SIDE CHAMBER OF TOMB KV.35 IN THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS

 

 

With the permission of Dr. Zahi Hawass of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, the three mummified bodies were studied in situ in side chamber Jc of the burial chamber of Amenhotep II (KV.35) by visual examination and digital radiography in February 2003.
The first general anatomical examination of the bodies was carried out in 1907 when Elliot Smith “made a hasty examination” published in 1912, whilst further radiographic details have been provided more recently for the Elder Woman and the Boy by Harris and Wente (1980). The current detailed study was carried out in order to confirm, or otherwise, previous findings and to add substantially to the previous radiographic findings.
Throughout the project, which was carried out under the full control and supervision of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, we were greatly assisted by the collaboration of our Egyptian colleagues in both Cairo and Luxor. This study has posed a number of research questions which show the need for further investigation (eg. non-destructive chemical analyses, CT scanning, experimental trauma simulating the ancient damage to the mummies).
Volver arriba Ir abajo
Ver perfil de usuario http://nieblaysombras.blogspot.com/
Semíramis
Admin


Cantidad de envíos : 45909
Localisation : KV 43
Fecha de inscripción : 10/06/2007

MensajeTema: Re: INVESTIGATION OF THE THREE MUMMIES IN THE SIDE CHAMBER OF TO   Lun Feb 01, 2016 7:37 am

THE ELDER WOMAN
When viewed from the entrance to the side chamber this was the body to the left of the three. No marked changes were observed from the descriptions and illustrations provided by Elliot Smith in 1912. Ancient damage to the throrax and abdomen appears to be the same. The long wavy hair remains and is the individual’s natural hair rather than a wig or false braids, close scrutiny also revealing the presence of several egg cases of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis). The top of the head is stained a brownish colour from the use of resinous materials, whilst their application to the face has produced a darker colour. A small amount of linen adheres to the left eyelid. Even allowing for drying of the soft tissues, the face appears to be finely structured, with the upper facial height (nasion to inferior nasal spine) 55mm. There is noticeable upper incisor overjet. The ears are not pierced and are relatively large and intact and the nostrils are noticeably open.
Post-mortem skin changes are restricted to small areas of the face and chest, and look like a skin rash or pitting. There are also small amounts of candle wax (?) on the face presumably from attempts to light the chamber prior to the introduction of electricity in 1902. Radiographic examination revealed well defined but small frontal sinuses. There was no evidence of damage to the nose and the back of the occipital area on the endocranial surface appears to contain decomposed brain tissue. The sutures are unclosed, but the epiphyses are all united. The right humerus head has a width of 47mm and the midshaft cortical bone thickness is 5.0mm. The right femoral head breadth is 47 mm. Although the team radiologist has described the mummy as “young, but over 25 years”, the fact that the pubic symphysis appears to be flat and the teeth are moderately worn suggests an age of perhaps 35-45 years or even older. This seems to be confirmed by the moderate osteophyte development on the lowest two lumbar vertebrae.
The right arm is covered with shiny black resinous material and fragments of fine linen, and is laid straight at the side of the body with the hand on the thigh. The middle finger is missing, some muscle tissue exposed and the hand itself covered in a 0.3mm layer of resin. The left forearm is covered with a 0.5mm layer of resin or oil, with parts of the muscle tissue exposed. It is bent up with the hand near the clavicle, the fingers curved in the original position to hold a sceptre or similar item of regalia. The hand is also covered in a 2mm thick layer of unidentified resin, a section of blackened linen adhering to the back of the hand. The remaining nails have been well manicured and appear to have been stained with henna. The left scapula is a brownish-red shade.
A thick cake of black resinous linen adheres to the neck and body, including sections of blackened resin-impregnated linen adhering to the top right side of the chest just below the scapula. Although partly obscured by moderately fine linen wrappings, the internal packing appears granular and heterogeneous. Despite extensive damage to the abdomen, the embalming incision does not appear to conform to either clearly defined position set down by Elliot Smith (1912) and may relate to a different means of removing the viscera. A thick layer of resin covers the lower abdomen and perineum, whilst the genital area is intact and confirms the sex of the individual. Other skeletal dimensions measured from the radiographs include a feminine sub-pubic angle of approximately 120°, and an approximate sacral index of 120. The acetabular diameter is smaller than the symphysis-acetabular distance, again a female feature. There is fusion of the ischiopubic apophysis. A comminuted fracture of the left iliac crest in the region of the anterior superior iliac spine is probably post-mortem damage linked to the mummification process or grave-robbing. The first sacral segment could be relatively unfused, a possible non-metric feature.

The right leg is covered with a mass of brown and black-coloured linen, with traces of a white fungus(?) on the skin. The left leg is coated in a resinous layer between 0.5-1mm thick, in places cracked to reveal muscle tissue, and with only some blackened resinous linen remaining on the left thigh the leg itself is largely exposed.
The feet have been broken off, the left foot placed between the thighs disarticulated through the talo-navicular and talo-calcaneal joints and the distal phalanx of the first toe is missing. It also displays pathology or post-mortem changes, Elliot Smith describing ulceration on the left heel of the foot, although there is no evidence for this in the X-rays of the bones of the foot.
Volver arriba Ir abajo
Ver perfil de usuario http://nieblaysombras.blogspot.com/
Semíramis
Admin


Cantidad de envíos : 45909
Localisation : KV 43
Fecha de inscripción : 10/06/2007

MensajeTema: Re: INVESTIGATION OF THE THREE MUMMIES IN THE SIDE CHAMBER OF TO   Lun Feb 01, 2016 7:37 am

THE BOY
When viewed from the entrance to the side chamber this was the body in the centre of the three. This is a generally well preserved mummy, but with some ancient regional damage.
The age of this boy is given as a little over 11 years by Elliot Smith (1912) and 12 to 13 years by Harris and Wente (1980). The critical dental features are that he had developed and erupted permanent canines, his second molars were nearly completely formed and partly erupted, and his third molar crowns are only partly formed. Considering the period and environment, the dental evidence suggests an age of 12 years ± 6 months. In terms of the post-cranial age evidence, the proximal epiphyses of the humerus are not fused, the scapular rim epiphyses can be seen, the proximal radius head epiphysis is separate but close to fusion, the iliac crest epiphyses are visible and unfused and the proximal femoral epiphyses are not fused. The age given by the post-cranial radiographic evidence is approximately 14-15 years, so the overall age estimate is 12-14 years.
Elliot Smith alluded to the boy’s exceptional brachycephalism (Smith 1912), his head nearly as broad from side to side as from front to back. The head is shaved, except for a long side lock of hair on the right of the head which is highly desiccated and requires conservation to prevent further loss. The top of the head is darkened by the application of resinous materials. On the right side of the frontal area is a large sharp-edged hole, with fragments of bone visible and lying inside the skull. The brain has been removed, Elliot Smith (1912) suggesting that damage to the base of the skull indicates the unusual removal of the brain through the sphenoid, not ethmoid area.

The ears are clearly pierced. Part of the left eyebrow is visible. The eyes are widely set apart, the lips are broad and the chin prominent. The nostrils are again noticeably open and the nose remarkably similar to that of the Elder Woman, X-rays of their profiles confirming a remarkable facial similarity suggestive of a close family relationship. Parts of the face have been discoloured by the use of resinous materials, with small splashes of candle (?) wax again present on the face.
Both hands are arranged over the genital area, the left hand clasped with the thumb extended, beneath the fully extended right hand with its smallest finger bent back.
The chest and thorax had been covered in a thin layer of resin between 0.5-1mm thick, which still retained the slight impression of some sort of regalia or costume once worn close to the skin. There were also pieces of linen adhering to the chest and abdomen, with various thicknesses of linen of various shades (quite possibly due to their impregnation with various unguents associated with the mummification) used as internal packing in the thorax.
There is severe damage to the chest area, mainly to the upper left side, which poses some interesting forensic questions. This is by no means a single “large gash” briefly referred to by Elliot Smith (1912), but a large pear-shaped hole resulting from an axe-size weapon being driven into the chest at least five times (see figure A). The blows have cut cleanly through the sternum, the left clavicle and six ribs. As a result of blows 3 or 5 (as listed), the upper chest wall was dragged and bent back, exposing the thoracic cavity and upper chest packing. Of note is the fact that this severe damage did not cause collapse or splintering to the chest, and the segment of chest pulled back appears to have been soft and malleable. If this is the case, then the body was relatively ‘fresh’ when the damage took place. Could this have been only weeks or months after mummification? Indeed, lack of fragmented linen in the cuts suggests that the axe damage occurred before the body was wrapped. Does this mean that the body was still being prepared when the individual was hacked into, and thus could this be malicious damage and not simply the result of grave robbing? From a forensic point of view, this seems to be an interesting question deserving further investigation.

Once again the embalming incision does not appear to conform to either clearly defined position set down by Elliot Smith (1912) and may relate to a different means of removing the viscera, as in the Elder Woman. There is a mass of resin-impregnated brown-black linen over the hip and around the area of the embalming incision, the packing material in the abdomen made up of a combination of linen of various shades, vegetable matter and mud.
The lack of resin around the lower abdomen and perineum makes it possible to confirm Elliot Smith’s comment that the boy was not circumcised.
The left leg and corresponding foot are a reddish colour. The right leg appears to be slightly shorter than the left, and in X-ray it can be seen that the right hip is severely dislocated with the femur head displaced superiorly, located out of the acetabulum and driven on to the iliac blade posteriorly. There appears to be additional bone density surrounding the femur head and situated on the pelvis, suggesting a post-traumatic reaction in life. There is also an associated fracture of the right superior pubic ramus, extending from the obturator foramen through the ischium to the acetabulum. This form of dislocation is not congenital, which produces distinctive changes to the femur head and acetabulum. This massive injury could have occurred in life, and needs further investigation by CT scanning.
There is additional minor damage at the left hip. Both feet have been broken off, the right foot disarticulated through the talo-calcaneal and talo-navicular joints, and both phalanges of the first toe, two and a half phalanges of the second toe and terminal phalanx of the fourth toe are missing. The left foot is disarticulated through the ankle joint and both phalanges of the first toe are missing. In both feet all the metacarpal and phalangeal epiphyses are present and unfused, although some of the proximal phalangeal epiphyses seem close to fusion, with expected fusion at 18 years for phalanges and 20 years for metatarsals. The calcaneal and fifth metatarsal apophyses are present and unfused, with expected fusion at 12-22 years, whilst the tarsal bones are adult in appearance.
Volver arriba Ir abajo
Ver perfil de usuario http://nieblaysombras.blogspot.com/
Semíramis
Admin


Cantidad de envíos : 45909
Localisation : KV 43
Fecha de inscripción : 10/06/2007

MensajeTema: Re: INVESTIGATION OF THE THREE MUMMIES IN THE SIDE CHAMBER OF TO   Lun Feb 01, 2016 7:38 am

THE YOUNGER WOMAN
When viewed from the entrance to the side chamber this was the body on the right of the three. This was generally a well preserved mummy, although displaying areas of severe ancient damage. There has been confusion as to the sex of this individual, but there is no evidence of male genitals, and the female structures are deformed by the mummification procedures with linen and resin.
Although the X-rays revealed some similarity between the Younger Woman and the two individuals buried with her, the likeness was not as marked as it was between the Elder Woman and the Boy.
There are unerupted lower left and upper and lower right wisdom teeth, third molar development displaying the crown and some root which usually suggests an age of 15-19 years. Due to facial damage, the only erupted teeth are present on the right side, some of which could show the presence of dental caries. The post-cranial evidence of immaturity includes a slightly corrugated pubic symphysis, an ununited rim to the iliac crest, a proximal humerus head without union, a distal humerus epiphysis unfused and the distal femoral epiphysis appears only to be partly united. On the other hand, the proximal radius epiphysis appears to have united with the radius shaft and the general condition of the spine and the major joints and the fact that all the long bone epiphyses are fused gives an age of approximately 25, although she could have been as old as 30. The dental and post-cranial maturation evidence would seem to suggest an age range for this individual of 18 up to 30 years. It should be noted that interpretation of the union of epiphyses is difficult from X-rays alone.

The head is completely shaven and the top of the cranium covered by a 0.25mm layer of mid-brown resinous material. A hole in midline of the frontal bone, roughly triangular in shape, has smooth, slightly scalloped edges which could suggest some healing but it is almost certainly a post-mortem injury. A mass of desiccated brain tissue remains within the cranium.
The face is fairly gracile, with a prominent nasal bridge, prominent upper lip and chin with evidence of maxillary prognathism, described by Elliot Smith as “such a constant and distinctive trait of the royal family of the XVIIIth dynasty” (1912). Although the nose appeared to have once been plugged, the nostrils are now empty and the nasal septum is visible. There are faint traces of both eyebrows. The face is covered with a very thin layer of resinous material, which has retained the impression of a tight fitting band around the forehead and ears. Although the right ear is missing, the left ear lobe is intact and displays two small perforations. The left part of the mouth is severely damaged, and on close inspection it is clear that an axe, short sword or machete-type weapon was hacked into the face. This has cut fairly cleanly through the maxilla, carried away some upper teeth and probably breaking off some lower teeth.

Below the long thin feminine neck the remnants of the chest area are covered in a thin 0.3mm layer of resin and are brownish in colour with smaller areas grey in colour. There is severe irregular damage in the central thoracic area, exposing the diaphragm and heart and the internal packing of linen overlaid with mud. The weapon which caused the facial damage may also have produced what appears to be a superficial, fairly straight cut of about 12cm in length into the thoracic area, just below the collapsed left breast (Figure B). On careful examination, it appears to be more than a fold of tissue, and a small exposed area of adipocere would confirm a break in the skin. The position of this apparent cut is problematic, in that it is into the side of the thorax, and would not have been produced by a blow to the front of the body (as in the case of the facial damage). However, it could have been produced by an angled stab injury which glanced off the ribs. In such a situation, the rib damage would be too superficial to be revealed by the current X-rays. It is possible that a careful search whilst CT-scanning the mummy might eventually reveal fine cuts on the ribs. Again, it is relevant to ask if this thoracic injury is the result of tomb robbing, or an indication of malicious injury.
The left arm and shoulder blade are intact, with the arm extending down the side of the body and the left hand directed inwards over the upper thigh. The arm is covered in fine linen and a 0.5mm layer of resin, with blackened resin also noted on the skin under the left arm. There is an undisplaced spiral fracture of the left humerus shaft, and the sharpness of the edges suggests an injury near death or post-mortem.
The right arm had been torn or hacked off in ancient times just below the shoulder joint. There is an undisplaced fracture of the blade of the scapula. Elliot Smith (1912) remarked on a well preserved right hand and forearm associated with this mummy, with flexing at the elbow and the hand in a clasped posture. This was relocated beside the right leg of the mummy, and covered with a thin 0.3-0.5mm layer of resin, its proportions suggest it is the forearm of a female adult.
Although not seen by Elliot Smith in 1907, there is now a second right arm present, partly covered in brown linen at the top and minus the hand. Incorporating the shoulder of the Younger Woman, the length of this extended right arm is 57cm as compared with 55cm from the top of the shoulder to the wrist of the intact left arm. This 2cm discrepancy suggests that the extended right arm may not have belonged to the Younger Woman. The appearance and position of the fine textured linen impregnated with resin located at the top of the extended arm again suggests that it does not correspond with the right shoulder of the Younger Woman. Given that the right arm of this mummy had clearly been forcefully removed in ancient times, it is also questionable whether the extended arm would have survived in such a relatively intact state, particularly at the elbow. Relating one or other arm to this mummy would demand further analysis and tests.
The embalming incision does not appear to conform to either clearly defined position set down by Elliot Smith (1912) and may relate to a different means of removing the viscera, as also noted in the Elder Woman and Boy. The abdomen is packed with many rolls of linen padding, whilst the area inside and beneath the incision is packed with mud and what appears to be small pieces of limestone.

As with the Boy, the Younger Woman does not have a thick layer of resin over the lower abdomen and perineum as noted in the case of the Elder Woman, although there is an area of shiny resin around the anus and the rear of the hips has blackened in colour.

The width, shape and depth of the sciatic notch is consistent with a female. There is a sharp-edged and slightly displaced fracture of the right pubic ramus, and with no sign of healing this possibly occurred close to death or post-mortem. There is also a fracture of the blade of the left ilium, extending from a defect in the crest, with a section of the bone probably excised (no bone fragments are visible). This is possibly post-mortem and may have occurred during the mummification process.

The last lumbar vertebra appears to be abnormally angular and is associated with some degree of lumbar scoliosis, concave to the right. This is unlikely to be post-mortem malpositioning, and the disparity between the position of the spine and those of the chest and pelvis suggests a true scoliosis, causing abnormal back posture in life CF ASYMMETRICAL BUST!!!!!!!
Both legs were wrapped in fine brown linen. Several metal (gold?) objects are scattered through the jaw area and the lower rib cage contains a scatter of similar objects, probably at least 12 small beads.
Volver arriba Ir abajo
Ver perfil de usuario http://nieblaysombras.blogspot.com/
Semíramis
Admin


Cantidad de envíos : 45909
Localisation : KV 43
Fecha de inscripción : 10/06/2007

MensajeTema: Re: INVESTIGATION OF THE THREE MUMMIES IN THE SIDE CHAMBER OF TO   Lun Feb 01, 2016 7:38 am

CONCLUSIONS

The discovery of the three bodies within the burial chamber of a royal tomb obviously suggests their royal status. Yet their burial within the tomb of Amenhotep II does not mean they were his contemporaries, since other royal mummies from this tomb (from Side Chamber Jb) are known to date from 1390-1136 BC. Although Elliot Smith (1912) also suggested that the three must be contemporaries of Amenhotep II on the basis of “mummification techniques”, our close visual scrutiny of the mummification materials used on all three bodies has demonstrated that this is not the case. The application of the resins, position of embalming incisions etc. are consistent with mummification techniques used throughout the mid to late 18th dynasty, and although the individual unguents and ingredients appear to have been quite different for each individual, the incredibly high standards of mummification seen in each of the three bodies confirms their elite status. The information provided by a visual examination of the hairstyles, pierced ears and evidence of royal regalia once worn/carried by the three also confirms a late 18th dynasty date.

The absence of Harris Lines in the long bones of all three suggests that they had suffered no periods of growth delay/retardation in life, again suggesting high status, well-cared for individuals. Nor was there any evidence of severe bone disease or arthritic change in their skeletons, the apparent ‘calcification’ in the invertebral discs of each one possibly being the result of desiccation during the mummification process.
It should be noted that the approximate ages given for the three bodies are based on European standards, Elliot Smith stating that he had employed “the ordinary European standards of ossification” (1912), “with my present experience of the variability of the relative dates of the epiphyseal unions in ancient Egyptian bones, I would make the reservation that the anatomical evidence, when based upon the penultimate stage of consolidation of a single bone, cannot be regarded as conclusive” (Smith 1912, p.ix). During Harris and Wente’s radiographic studies on the Royal Mummies it was noted that “a comparison of our results… reveals that the pharaohs' ages at death as determined by the biologists are generally younger than what the written sources suggested. Part of this disparity may be attributed to a somewhat slower maturation in antiquity - as it is among modern Nubians, who reach puberty two to three years later than modern Americans” (Wente 1995). Egyptologists now tend to treat these varying ages with a certain degree of caution, and “although it is tempting to assume that the estimated ages of death of the royal mummies can be used as a starting point for establishing chronology, it appears that we must accept that not only the estimates given by Maspero and Smith, but also those based on recent scientific examination are not accurate enough to be used absolutely for this purpose, and that no historical or
Volver arriba Ir abajo
Ver perfil de usuario http://nieblaysombras.blogspot.com/
Semíramis
Admin


Cantidad de envíos : 45909
Localisation : KV 43
Fecha de inscripción : 10/06/2007

MensajeTema: Re: INVESTIGATION OF THE THREE MUMMIES IN THE SIDE CHAMBER OF TO   Lun Feb 01, 2016 7:38 am

chronological arguments based solely on evidence of age at death of a mummy can be considered valid… Certainly, if it goes against what can be deduced from other sources, priority should be given to the latter” (Robins 1981).

Regardless of the range put forward for their ages, identities for all three mummies have been previously suggested. The mummy of the Elder Woman has been identified as Queen Tiye by Harris et el. (1978) on the basis of matching hair evidence, cranial morphology and the position of the left arm bent up in queenly pose to hold a sceptre. Our estimated age of “over 25 years”, “perhaps 35-45 years or even older” would also support such an identification, as would the distribution of embalming resins and other materials which are very similar to those employed in the embalming of Queen Tiy’s parents Yuya and Tuya and later individuals. A recent suggestion that this is the mummy of Nefertiti (James 2001) seems rather less likely, since Nefertiti is repeatedly shown with headgear, wigs and tight-fitting crowns requiring a shaven or closely cropped head, and is also shown wearing earrings requiring pierced ears which the Elder Woman clearly does not have.

Although Elliot Smith (1912) suggested that the boy may be Prince Ouabkhousenou (Webensenu), a son of the tomb owner Amenhotep II, this again seems unlikely. His exceptional brachycephaly may be favourably compared to that exhibited by the mummies of Amenhotep III, Akhenaten/Smenkhkare from KV.55 and Tutankhamen. The distribution of embalming resins and other materials are completely different to those employed for Amenhotep II, yet are very similar to those employed for later 18th dynasty mummies. The impressions in the embalming resins on his torso suggest he may once have worn some sort of royal corselet of the type found in the tomb of Tutankhamen. The length and thickness of his sidelock suggests a mid to late 18th dynasty date, whilst his clearly pierced ears reveal a practice amongst royal males only found from the reign of Tuthmosis IV onwards (Andrews 1990). On the basis of these factors we believe that this is a royal prince of the late 18th dynasty.

Although the mummy of the Younger Woman has usually received less attention than the other two, in part because of the extensive damage to her face and chest, she is in many ways the most intriguing. Although her head is completely shaven, a fragmentary wig originally found beside the body and examined by a member of the team could well have once formed the so-called ‘Nubian Wig’ worn by royal women of the Amarna Period, most particularly Nefertiti, her daughters Meritaten and Ankhesenamun and Akhenaten’s minor wife Kiya. The mummy’s remaining left ear clearly has two holes forming a double-pierced lobe, a most unusual feature only found on the statuary of Nefertiti and possibly Meritaten. The presence of a woman’s right arm, bent up to hold a sceptre in its clenched fist, again suggests a royal female wielding kingly powers, whilst the gold(?) amulets and beads revealed by the X-rays inside the mummy reveal the original presence of a jewelled collar comparable to that found on the male mummy in KV.55 (Davis 1910).

Although extensive damage to the chests of all three mummies can be regarded as post-mortem damage during robbery, the malicious damage to the Younger Woman’s face cannot be explained in the same way, the use of an axe or machete-type blade to destroy the mouth instead suggesting an attempt to deprive her of the breath of life.

It is also striking that all three mummies had been treated completely differently to the other royal mummies reburied elsewhere in the tomb. Left unwrapped, unidentified and placed directly on to the floor of their own separate chamber without coffins, the three had obviously been separated from the others and treated in an undignified manner.

If the Elder Lady is indeed Queen Tiy, mother of the so-called ‘Heretic’ pharaoh Akhenaten, it follows that the two individuals buried close beside her in exactly the same circumstances exhibiting similar mummification techniques and bearing a close resemblance should be regarded as members of her family.

 

We would like to take this opportunity to thank Dr. Zahi Hawass and the Supreme Council of Antiquities and all our Egyptian colleagues in Cairo and Luxor who were involved in this fascinating project.

 

 

 


 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Brothwell, D.R. 1981, Digging Up Bones, London

Brothwell, D. & Higgs, E. eds., 1963, Science in Archaeology, London

Brothwell, D.R. & Sandison, A.T. eds., 1967, Disease on Antiquity, Springfield

Buckley, S.A. & Evershed, R.P. 2001, The Organic Chemistry of Embalming Agents in Pharaonic and Graeco-Roman Mummies, Nature (vol.413, issue 6858), p.837-841

Cockburn, A., Cockburn, E. & Reyman, T.A. eds. 1998,  Mummies, Disease and Ancient Cultures, Cambridge

Davis, T.M. 1910, The Tomb of Queen Tîyi, London

Fletcher, J. 2000, Hair, Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology (eds. P.Nicholson & I. Shaw) Cambridge, p.495-501

Fletcher, J. & Montserrat, D. 1998, The Human Hair in the Tomb of Tutankhamun: a re-evaluation, Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of Egyptologists, (ed. C.Eyre), Leuven, p.401-407

Gray, P.H.K. 1972, Notes concerning the position of the arms and hands of mummies with a view to possible dating of the specimen, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 58, p.200-

Harris, J.E. & Wente, E.F. eds. 1980, An X-Ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies, Chicago

Harris, J.E., Wente, E., Cox, C., Nawawy, I., Kowalski, C., Storey, A., Russell, W., Ponitz, P. & Walker, G. 1978, Mummy of the ‘Elder Lady’ in the tomb of Amenhotep II: Egyptian Museum Catalog Number 61070, Science 200, p.1149-1151

James, S.E. 2001, Who is the Mummy Elder Lady, KMT: a Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt

Vol.12, No.2

Robins, G. 1981, The value of the estimated ages of the royal mummies at death as historical

evidence, GM 45, p.63-68

Smith, G.E. 1907, On the Mummies in the Tomb of Amenhotep II, BIE 5th serie 1,                      p.221-228

Smith, G.E. 1912, The Royal Mummies, Catalogue General des Antiquites Egyptiennes de la

Musee du Caire, Nos. 61051-61100, Cairo

Wente, E. 1995, Who Was Who Among the Royal Mummies, The Oriental Institute News &

Notes, No. 144, p.1-6

Wente, E. & Harris, J. 1992, Royal Mummies of the Eighteenth Dynasty: a Biological and

Egyptological Approach, in N. Reeves, ed. After Tut'ankhamun, London, p. 2-20

 


 


TEAM MEMBERS

 

Professor Don Brothwell,

Department of Archaeology, The King's Manor, York University, York

 

Dr. Samia El-Merghani,

Anthropologist, Center of Researches & Conservation of Antiquities, Cairo Museum

 

Dr. Stephen Buckley,

Archaeological Scientist, Department of Archaeology, The King's Manor, York University, York

 

Dr. Joann Fletcher,

Egyptologist, Department of Archaeology, The King's Manor, York University, York

 

Andrea Bates,

Senior Radiographer, Department of Medical Engineering & Physics, King's College Hospital, London

 

Dr. David Allen,

Consultant Radiologist, Department of Medical Engineering and Physics, King's College Hospital, London
Volver arriba Ir abajo
Ver perfil de usuario http://nieblaysombras.blogspot.com/
Semíramis
Admin


Cantidad de envíos : 45909
Localisation : KV 43
Fecha de inscripción : 10/06/2007

MensajeTema: Re: INVESTIGATION OF THE THREE MUMMIES IN THE SIDE CHAMBER OF TO   Lun Feb 01, 2016 7:39 am

https://www.york.ac.uk/media/archaeology/documents/staff/research/Official-Report-to-SCA-on-the-KV35-Project-2003.doc
Volver arriba Ir abajo
Ver perfil de usuario http://nieblaysombras.blogspot.com/
Contenido patrocinado




MensajeTema: Re: INVESTIGATION OF THE THREE MUMMIES IN THE SIDE CHAMBER OF TO   Hoy a las 7:07 pm

Volver arriba Ir abajo
 
INVESTIGATION OF THE THREE MUMMIES IN THE SIDE CHAMBER OF TO
Ver el tema anterior Ver el tema siguiente Volver arriba 
Página 1 de 1.
 Temas similares
-
» Se suicidó un ex empleado de la Side en la sede del organismo
» Egyptian Mummies
» Ex empleado de la SIDE
» Animal Mummies – X-radiography, and coming soon – CT scans!
» VMFA show on mummies goes beyond the tomb

Permisos de este foro:No puedes responder a temas en este foro.
egiptomaníacos2007 :: 

HISTORIA DEL EGIPTO FARAÓNICO

 :: Faraones y Dinastías
-
Cambiar a: