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 The decoration of the false door.

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MensajeTema: The decoration of the false door.   Miér Mar 16, 2016 7:57 am

Chapter VIII
The decoration of the false door.
In this chapter the false door and its division into parts are discussed. The (sub)themes placed on them are
catalogued and defined. The location of the various (sub)themes and their FO values are determined. For every
part FO/period curves are made of the (sub)themes so that it can be established whether or not a chronological
development takes place. It is the panel and the door jambs that show such a development and therefore they are
included in the research project. It appears that several chronological developments take place, the most
important being the importation of (sub)theme 33 (the offering formula) on the door jambs, and the shift of
(sub)theme 42 (the non-ideographic offering list) from the panel to the western wall itself. The various mutations
of the (sub)themes are incorporated in the already developed working hypothesis that in the period V.E/L –
V.M/E the emphasis of the cult and thus of the decoration on the western wall as a whole changed from real
offering activities in front of the false door to a more magical food supply for the sustenance of the ka of the
deceased. The most important (sub)themes on the false door are the tomb owner at the offering table, the
offering formula, and his/her name and title(s), the latter being placed on several parts of the false door
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MensajeTema: Re: The decoration of the false door.   Miér Mar 16, 2016 7:57 am

I. Preliminary considerations.
I.1. The partition of the false door.
The false door must be considered to be the most important cultic element in the chapel and is a
facsimile of the door that was originally intended to serve as the entrance of the house in which the
deceased lived.1
1 LÄ, V, 563-574, s.v. „Scheintür“; Oster, Bedeutungswandel, 29, 34 ff..
Figure
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MensajeTema: Re: The decoration of the false door.   Miér Mar 16, 2016 7:59 am

Except for a short period during the reign of Khufu (IV.2), the false door has always been an element
of the cult chapel.2 The importance of this element of the western wall leads to the conclusion that any
change on the false door must be due to a change in the interpretation of its cultic meaning.
During the Old Kingdom two main types of false door could be placed on the western wall, the
“normal” false door (figure VIII.1a), and the palace façade false door (ceremonial or serekh-type false
door) (figure VIII.1b).
Although it is an element of the western wall, the serekh-type false door has not been included with
the catalogues due to lack of decoration, consequently it is only the “normal” (“true”) false door that is
the subject of this research project.3 Figure VIII.1a gives the basic model of this type of false door.4
1 = Door recess . 5 = Side slots.
2 = Inner door jamb. 6 = False door panel.
3 = Door drum. 7 = Outer door jamb.
4 = Lower architrave (lintel). 8 = Upper architrave.5
In order to study the decoration of the false door it is divided into five main parts:
1. The side slots (no. 5).
2. The door jambs (nos. 2, 7).6
3. The door recess (no. 1).
4. The false door panel (no. 6).
5. The architraves (nos. 4, Cool.
The drum over the door recess (no. 3) is omitted from this list because it almost always contains only
the name of the tomb owner. On rare occasions a title, undoubtedly the one the tomb owner considered
to be the most important, was added to the name.7
The side slots (no. 5) are either empty,8 contain a serekh design,9 members of the family,10 offering
bearers,11 an oil cupboard,12 or an offering list.13 In the first instance this part is included in order to
see whether a chronological development can be discerned.
2 Oster, Bedeutungswandel, 65 ff..
3 The material from which the door is made is not taken into account.
4 After LÄ, V, 564. For a more complete collection of possible forms of this normal false door see Wiebach,
Scheintür, Tafel I and II.
5 In the period V.M/L a cornice was placed on top of this architrave and a torus moulding was introduced around
the false door (Wiebach, Scheintür, table I).
6 In this research project no distinction is made between the inner and outer door jambs, or the upper and lower
architraves.
7 LÄ, VI, 599, s.v. „Titel und Titelaturen“ gives the impression that rules existed about the title(s) to be added.
Examples of door drums with name and title(s) are the false doors of Nefermaaet (PM, IV, 93), Harpur, Maidum,
figure 78 and Thethi (PM, III1, 302-3, Cherpion, Mastabas, plate 32). A depiction of the tomb owner on the
drum of the false door is rare, no doubt because normally it was too small for more than the name and perhaps a
title. In most cases, even if the drum of the false door would have been large enough to accommodate such a
figure, it was not added (false door of Shery (Cherpion, Mastabas, plate 24)). An example might be visible in el-
Fikey, Rea-wer, plate 5 and 9 (though hard to distinguish). For possible decorations of the drum see Harpur,
DETOK, figures 14-20 and 25.
8 Cherpion, Mastabas, plate 46, mastaba of Nebt, Saqqara (PM, III², 624).
9 Cherpion, Mastabas, plate 32, false door of Thethi, Giza (PM, III1, 302-3); Cherpion, Mastabas, plate 21, false
door of Shery, Saqqara (PM, III², 490).
10 Sethu (PM, III1, 135-6), LD II, 87.
11 Khufuankh (PM, III1, 129-30); Reisner, Giza I, plate 65b.
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MensajeTema: Re: The decoration of the false door.   Miér Mar 16, 2016 8:00 am

I.2. The catalogue.
The catalogue IV.1/2.Vol 2 is employed for this part of the research project, which is a combination of
catalogues IV.1.Vol.2 (57 tombs) and IV.2.Vol.2 (29 tombs), with a total of 86 tombs.
I.3. The (sub)themes.
The numbering of the (sub)themes on the parts of the false door has to take into account the
numbering already used for the (sub)themes on the western wall. For this reason the numbering of the
(sub)themes starts at 20.14
1. The side slots.
20. Empty (plate VIII.1).
21. Serekh-type false door design (plate VIII.2).
22. The non-ideographic offering list (plate VIII.3).15
23. Members of the family (plate VIII.4).
2 The door jambs.
30. The tomb owner alone, standing or sitting (plate VIII.1).
31. Wife and/or family, standing or sitting (plate VIII.1).16
32. Name, title(s) (plate VIII.1).17
33. The offering formula (plate VIII.4).
34. Offering bearers (plate VIII.5).
35. Priests (plate VIII.6).
36. Containers/standards for offerings (plate VIII.2).
3. The false door panel.
40. The tomb owner alone at the offering table (plate IV.11).
41. The tomb owner with another person at the offering table (plate VIII.4).18
42. The non-ideographic offering list (plate VIII.7).
43. The offering formula (plate VIII.Cool.19
12 The false door of Methethi (PM, III², 646-Cool; Kaplony, Methethi, 51; Arnold, Pyramids, 135.
13 Cherpion, Mastabas, plate 4, false door of Nihetepkhnum (PM, III1, 50). Tomb F48 in Abu Rawash (see Baud,
Abu Rawash, 18).
14 In some of the parts of the false door the tomb owner and the name/titles have been taken as separate
(sub)themes (3032, 4044 and 6062). This might seem an artificial and unnecessary splitting up of two
attributes that are considered inseparable, but several undamaged false doors have door jambs where (sub)themes
30 (tomb owner alone) and 32 (name, titles) are not placed together (Khufukha'ef [II], Simpson, Gmast 3, figure
50; Seshemnufer [II], Kanawati, Giza II, plate 63). In figure VIII.2 the difference in FO values between the
depiction of the tomb owner and his/her name/title(s) is evident, and from this it might be concluded that,
although there is a connection between the two types of (sub)themes, they are not inseparable.
15 The non-ideographic offering list is a compilation stating in type and quantity the articles deemed necessary
for the sustenance of the ka of the deceased (plate IV.3) (LÄ, IV, 586-9, s.v. “Opferliste”).
16 Although the tomb owner is sometimes nearby, there is no direct contact between them (see plate VIII.1).
17 Within this research project the epithets sA nysw.t, sA.t nysw.t etc. are considered to be titles (Jones,
Index,[2911] and [2988].
18 In the tomb of Setka (PM, III1, 160-1) on both panels the tomb owner is depicted on both sides of the offering
table. The same is the case in the cult chapel of Idu (PM, III1, 185-6). This situation is interpreted as (sub)theme
41 (tomb owner with another person).
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MensajeTema: Re: The decoration of the false door.   Miér Mar 16, 2016 8:00 am

https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/bitstream/handle/1887/16646/Microsoft%20Word%20-%2009.Chapter%20VIII%20prschr%20Roeten.pdf?sequence=8
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