egiptomaníacos2007

Historia del Egipto Faraónico
 
ÍndicePortalFAQBuscarRegistrarseMiembrosGrupos de UsuariosConectarse

Comparte | 
 

 Wadi al-Jarf

Ver el tema anterior Ver el tema siguiente Ir abajo 
AutorMensaje
Semíramis
Admin
avatar

Cantidad de envíos : 51517
Localisation : KV 43
Fecha de inscripción : 10/06/2007

MensajeTema: Wadi al-Jarf   Jue Jul 14, 2016 12:39 pm

Wadi al-Jarf


Wadi al-Jarf is the present name for an area on the Red Sea coast of Egypt, 119 km (74 mi) south of Suez, that is the site of the oldest known artificial harbor on the world. It is located at the mouth of the Wadi Araba, a major communication corridor between the Nile Valley and the Red Sea, crossing the Eastern Desert. The site is also right across the Gulf of Suez from the small Sinai fortress of Tell Ras Budran. A somewhat similar ancient port is at Ain Sukhna, a little north of Wadi al-Jarf.

The site was first discovered by J. G. Wilkinson in 1832. It was rediscovered by a French team in the 1950s, who named it Rod el-Khawaga, but archeological work was quickly abandoned when the Suez Crisis broke out in 1956. A joint French–Egyptian team resumed excavation in 2011.

The harbor at the site dates to the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt, approximately 4,500 years ago. Also discovered at the site were more than 100 anchors, the first Old Kingdom anchors found in their original context, and numerous storage jars. The jars have been linked with those of another site across the Red Sea, indicating trade between the two sites. A large number of papyri fragments were found at Wadi al-Jarf, providing insight to life during the Fourth Dynasty. The papyri are the oldest ever found in Egypt.
wiki
Volver arriba Ir abajo
Ver perfil de usuario http://nieblaysombras.blogspot.com/
Semíramis
Admin
avatar

Cantidad de envíos : 51517
Localisation : KV 43
Fecha de inscripción : 10/06/2007

MensajeTema: Re: Wadi al-Jarf   Jue Jul 14, 2016 12:39 pm

Discovery[edit]

Ancient structures have been known to exist at Wadi al-Jarf since at least 1832 when J. G. Wilkinson noted their existence. He discovered a series of galleries cut into the stone which he believed to be Greek catacombs.[1] In the 1950s, a group of French amateurs in archeology began to explore some parts of the site, which they named Rod el-Khawaga, but were expelled during the 1956 Suez Crisis. Their notes were published in 2008, spurring interest to resume work.[2] Systematic excavation resumed in 2011 by a joint Egyptian–French archeological team led by Pierre Tallet (University Paris IV-La Sorbonne) and Gregory Marouard (The Oriental Institute, Chicago). In April 2013, archaeologists announced the discovery of an ancient harbor and dozens of papyrus documents at the location. Those are the oldest papyrus ever found in Egypt (ca. 2560-2550 BC, end of the reign of Khufu).[3]

Artifacts[edit]

Harbor[edit]

The harbor complex consists of a ca. 150 m (492 ft) long mole or jetty of stones that is still visible at low tide (

28.8888°N 32.6815°E), an alamat or navigational landmark made of heaped stones, a strange 60 m × 30 m (197 ft × 98 ft) building of unknown function that is divided into 13 long rooms, and a series of 25 to 30 storage galleries carved into limestone outcrops further inland. The building of unknown function is the largest pharaonic building discovered along the Red Sea coast to date. The storage galleries are between 16 and 34 m (52 and 112 ft) long, and are usually 3 m (9.8 ft) wide and 2.5 m (8.2 ft) tall.[4]

Inside the galleries lay several boat and sail fragments, some oars, and numerous pieces of ancient rope.[1][2] Twenty-five stone anchors were found under water, and 99 anchors were found in an apparent storage building.[1] The discovery of anchors in their original context is a first in Old Kingdom archeology.[4] Many of the anchors bear hieroglyphs, likely representing the boat's names from which they came.[5]

The port was the starting point for voyages from mainland Egypt to South Sinai mining operations.[2] It is speculated that the harbor may have also been used to launch voyages to "the mysterious Land of Punt", a known trading partner of Egypt.[3] The harbor dates to the reign of the Pharaoh Khufu (2589–2566 B.C.), whose name is inscribed on some of the heavy limestone blocks at the site.[1][5] That means the harbor predates the second-oldest known port structure by more than 1,000 years.[3] There is some trace evidence of use during the early part of Fifth Dynasty, after which the harbor was likely abandoned.[4]

Storage jars and papyri[edit]

Numerous stone food and water storage jars, textile and wood fragments, and a collection of hundreds of papyri fragments were also found at the site.[1][4] Many of the jars feature people's or boat's name in red ink, indicating their owners. The jars are characterized by a very particular marl composition which had previously been identified in Fourth Dynasty contexts at other sites, including across the Gulf of Suez at Tell Ras Budran.[4]

Ten of the papyri are especially very well preserved.[1] The majority of these documents date to the 27th year of Khufu's reign and describe how the central administration sent food and supplies to Egyptian travelers.[1][5] One document is of special interest: the diary of Merrer, an official involved in the building of the Great Pyramid of Khufu. Using the diary, researchers were able to reconstruct three months of his life, providing new insight into everyday lives of people of the Fourth Dynasty.[1][5] The papyri are the oldest ever found in Egypt.[3]

Residences[edit]

500 m (1,600 ft) to the northwest of the harbor three groups of buildings were found. The rectangular construction and organization of rooms into a cell-like pattern indicated the buildings served as dwelling places.[4]

References[edit]

1.^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Rossella Lorenzi (12 April 2013). "Most Ancient Port, Hieroglyphic Papyri Found". Discovery News. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
2.^ Jump up to: a b c Tallet, Pierre (2012). "Ayn Sukhna and Wadi el-Jarf: Two newly discovered pharaonic harbours on the Suez Gulf" (PDF). British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan 18: 147–68. ISSN 2049-5021. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
3.^ Jump up to: a b c d Davis, Carlo (17 April 2013). "Wadi El Jarf Site Reveals Oldest Harbor, Papyri Ever Found In Egypt". Huffington Post. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
4.^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Marouard, Gregory; Tallet, Pierre (2012). "Wadi al-Jarf - An early pharaonic harbour on the Red Sea coast". Egyptian Archaeology 40: 40–43. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
5.^ Jump up to: a b c d Stainburn, Samantha (18 April 2013). "Archeologists discover oldest Egyptian harbor ever found". Global Post. Retrieved 21 April 2013.

External links[edit]
Ayn Sukhna and Wadi el-Jarf: Two newly discovered pharaonic harbours on the Suez Gulf - includes pictures of the site and some of the artifacts found
P. Tallet, G. Marouard, D. Laisney (2012), Un port de la IVe Dynastie au Ouadi al-Jarf (mer Rouge). academia.edu
P. Tallet, G. Marouard (2012), An early pharaonic harbour on the Red Sea coast. academia.edu
P. Tallet, G. Marouard (2012), Un port de la IVe Dynastie au Ouadi al-Jarf, mer Rouge [1] academia.edu
P. Tallet, G. Marouard (2014), The Harbor of Khufu on the Red Sea Coast at Wadi al-Jarf Egypt [2] academia.edu
Volver arriba Ir abajo
Ver perfil de usuario http://nieblaysombras.blogspot.com/
Maat

avatar

Cantidad de envíos : 13513
Fecha de inscripción : 17/06/2007

MensajeTema: Re: Wadi al-Jarf   Miér Sep 21, 2016 2:43 am

gracias
Volver arriba Ir abajo
Ver perfil de usuario
sacerdote de Amon

avatar

Cantidad de envíos : 3962
Fecha de inscripción : 02/05/2010

MensajeTema: Re: Wadi al-Jarf   Lun Oct 24, 2016 1:00 am

poco conocido
Volver arriba Ir abajo
Ver perfil de usuario
Contenido patrocinado




MensajeTema: Re: Wadi al-Jarf   

Volver arriba Ir abajo
 
Wadi al-Jarf
Ver el tema anterior Ver el tema siguiente Volver arriba 
Página 1 de 1.
 Temas similares
-
» Wadi al-Jarf
» Wadi Hammamat
» Valle de las ballenas -Wadi Al-Hitan
» Wadi es- Sebua
» Wadi al Natrum

Permisos de este foro:No puedes responder a temas en este foro.
egiptomaníacos2007 :: 

HISTORIA DEL EGIPTO FARAÓNICO

 :: Templos, monumentos, pirámides , mastabas y tumbas
-
Cambiar a: