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MensajeTema: Dyed   Jue Dic 15, 2016 11:49 pm

Pilar Dyed





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El Pilar Dyed, o Dyed simbolizaba la "estabilidad". Pudo representar la columna vertebral del dios Osiris, un árbol, un poste conformado por gavillas de grano atadas, etc. Es uno de los símbolos más reproducido en la mitología egipcia, aunque se desconoce el objeto que representa realmente. Puede aparecer acompañado de otros símbolos, como son el Cetro uas "poder" o "dominio" y el Anj "vida".

El pilar dyed pudo ser un antiguo fetiche de la época prehistórica, relacionado con los ritos agrícolas, que perduró en la iconografía egipcia, siendo representado hasta el periodo de dominación romana.

De época Tinita se conocen pilares Dyed, hallados en Helwan. Posteriormente, durante el Imperio Antiguo, fue grabado en el recinto funerario del faraón Dyeser (Zoser) en Saqqara, en la necrópolis de Menfis, y parece indicar que era un símbolo asociado a otros conceptos, como soporte del cielo; o bien pudo ser asignado a otras divinidades, como Sokar y Ptah, pues estos dioses de Menfis aparecen representados portando este símbolo.

Durante el Imperio Nuevo, en el Papiro de Ani, está dibujado junto al signo de la vida, Anj, con unos brazos que portan un disco solar naciente, acompañado, a ambos lados, por su hermana Neftis y su esposa Isis, con varios monos que saludan y adoran al Sol. Es Osiris el representado con forma de Dyed.
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MensajeTema: Re: Dyed   Jue Dic 15, 2016 11:49 pm

Sincretismo[editar]

Es posible que cuando Osiris, Ptah y Sokar fueron asociados, el pilar pasó a formar parte del simbolismo de Osiris cuando se difundió ampliamente su culto. El pilar Dyed también se encuentra representado en los cetros uas de los dioses Thot y Jonsu.

La erección del pilar Dyed[editar]

"La erección del pilar Dyed" era una célebre ceremonia de origen menfita, posiblemente en honor al dios Ptah, que posteriormente se asoció con Osiris. Mediante la celebración de esta ceremonia se simbolizaba la estabilidad del reinado, la resurrección de Osiris, y la victoria de éste dios sobre Seth. Esta ceremonia constituía un modo de renovar, regenerar y revitalizar periódicamente las fuerzas del faraón para que pudiera seguir reinando sobre el trono de Egipto. Además, debía repetirse durante la fiesta Heb Sed. Se puede observar, entre otros lugares, en el templo de Sethy I en Abidos, el lugar de culto a Osiris.
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MensajeTema: Re: Dyed   Jue Dic 15, 2016 11:49 pm




Imagen de Seti I en Abidos: erección del pilar Dyed.
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MensajeTema: Re: Dyed   Jue Dic 15, 2016 11:50 pm

The djed pillar was an important part of the ceremony called 'raising the djed,' which was a part of the celebrations of Heb Sed, the Egyptian pharaoh's jubilee celebrations. The act of raising the djed has been explained as representing Osiris's triumph over Set.[10] Ceremonies in Memphis are described where the pharaoh, with the help of the priests, raised a wooden djed column using ropes. The ceremony took place during the period when fields were sown and the year's agricultural season would begin corresponding to the month of Choiak, the fourth month of the inundation season called akhet. This ceremony was a part of one of the more popular holidays and celebrations of the time, a larger festival dedicated to Osiris conducted from the 13th to 30th day of the Choiak month. Celebrated as it was at that time of the year when the soil and climate were most suitable for agriculture, the festival and its ceremonies can be seen as an appeal to Osiris, who was the God of vegetation, to favor the growth of the seeds sown, paralleling his own resurrection and renewal after his murder by Seth.[6]

Further celebrations surrounding the raising of the djed are described in a relief in Amenhotep III's Luxor Temple. In the tomb in the temple, the scene shows the raising of the djed pillar taking place in the morning of Amenhotep III's third Heb-Sed, which took place in his thirty-seventh regnal year. The scene is described by Sigrid Hodel-Hoenes:


The anthropomorphized pillar stands at the middle left, in a shrine. It has taken the shape of a human body with the djed-pillar as its head; the eyes are udjat-eyes. The hands hold the crook and flail, the usual insignia of Osiris, the god of the dead. On its head is the tall feather crown with the solar disk. The pillar is on a high base reminiscent of the platforms visible today in many temples, on which the cult barks once stood. In front of and behind it are lotus and papyrus blossoms. Beneath the large slab of the base are two tall offering stands – one bears a libation vessel, while flowers have been laid on the other. To the right is the king himself, presenting a generously laid table. Fowl, cucumbers, blossoms, breads, and heads and ribs of beef are all lying on the upper mat, while a cow and an antelope can be seen on the lower one. Beneath these mats are four tall vessels containing unguents and oil, with bundles of lettuce sticking out among them. The vulture goddess, Wadjyt, the Mistress of the Per-nu shrine, has spread her protective wings above the sovereign, with the blue crown on his head.[10]

— Sigrid Hodel-Hoenes, Life and death in ancient Egypt : scenes from private tombs in new kingdom Thebes, p. 222





Djed constructed of gilded inlay on wood with red, blue, and green glass.[11] The Walters Art Museum.
There is also a scene depicted in the tomb to the right of the above scene which has not been well preserved. Hodel-Hoenes explains that it once showed the pharaoh, accompanied by his queen, using a rope to raise the djed pillar. Three men, probably priests of the temple of Memphis, help him in the process. A fourth priest was seen supporting the pillar. Various offerings were presented before the pillar below the ropes. Both the pharaoh and his queen are each accompanied by four pairs of young women resembling those of the sed-festival. Each of these women is rattling a Hathor sistrum, a musical instrument for percussion with a U-shaped handle and frame seen as resembling the face and horns of the cow goddess Hathor, while holding a menat, a protective amulet associated with Hathor, in the other hand. A line of hieroglyphs running just above the girls' heads in each row of women says, "Children of the king praising (or charming) the noble djed pillar." Hodel-Hoenes interprets this as identifying the girls as the daughters of Amenhotep III.[10]

There are three additional reliefs below these two reliefs. They depict further ceremonies that accompany the erection of the djed pillar, especially games and dances. In one, food-bearers carrying edibles weave between men dancing with heavy steps. A line of singers on the far left seems to sing a short hymn to Ptah, the text of which is written alongside the line. Singing and dancing girls can be seen in the next relief, though Hodel-Hoenes comments on their seeming lack of grace, saying, "only the raised hands and the foot swinging in the air hint at the movements of a dance." The relief also depicts men involved in a boxing match and a cane dance, sports and dances which can still be seen in Egypt today.[10]

The festival of the raising of the djed also involved re-enactments conducted at Denderah, Edfu, Busiris, Memphis, and Philae. But the most elaborate and grand celebration occurred at Abydos, the cult center of Osiris. From around the end of the third millennium BC during the beginning of the Twelfth Dynasty and perhaps as early as the Sixth Dynasty three hundred years earlier, re-enactments of the myth of Osiris and Isis – the deception and murder of Osiris by Seth, the search for Osiris by Isis and Osiris' mummification, funeral and his resurrection were performed. From the late fourth century BC, a recitation of the Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys, a poem describing Isis and Nephthys' search for Osiris, was added to the ceremony on the 25th day of the Choiak month. At the Osiris Temple in Abydos, these re-enactments are described as involving hundreds of priests and priestesses in the roles of the gods and goddesses, with 34 papyrus boats carrying the gods, a sculpture of Osiris inside an elaborate chest, 365 ornamental lamps, incense, and dozens of djed amulets.[6]

Usage as amulets[edit]





A djed amulet with the name of Ramesses IX of the Twentieth dynasty inscribed upon it.
The djed pillar was often used as amulets for the living and the dead. It was placed as an amulet near the spines of mummified bodies, which was supposed to ensure the resurrection of the dead, allowing the deceased to live eternally.[4] The Egyptian Book of the Dead lists a spell which when spoken over a gold amulet hung around the mummy's neck, ensures that the mummy would regain use of its spine and be able to sit up. It was also painted onto coffins.[2]

Parallels in other cultures[edit]

Parallels have also been drawn between the djed pillar and various items in other cultures. Sidney Smith in 1922, first suggested a parallel with the Assyrian "sacred tree" when he drew attention to the presence of the upper four bands of the djed pillar and the bands that are present in the center of the vertical portion of the tree. He also proposed a common origin between Osiris and the Assyrian god Assur with whom he said, the sacred tree might be associated. Cohen and Kangas suggest that the tree is probably associated with the Sumerian god of male fertility, Enki and that for both Osiris and Enki, an erect pole or polelike symbol stands beneath a celestial symbol. They also point out that the Assyrian king is depicted in proximity to the sacred tree, which is similar to the depiction of the pharaoh in the raising of the djed ceremony. Additionally, the sacred tree and the Assyrian winged disk, which are generally depicted separately, are combined in certain designs, similar to the djed pillar which is sometimes surmounted with a solar disk.[12] Katherine Harper and Robert Brown also discuss a possible strong link between the djed column and the concept of kundalini in yoga.[13]

References[edit]

1.Jump up ^ Mackenzie, Donald Alexander (2007). Egyptian Myth and Legend: With Historical Narrative, Notes on Race Problems, Comparative Beliefs, etc. Forgotten Books. p. 43. ISBN 1-60506-002-X. Retrieved 2012-07-17.
2.^ Jump up to: a b c d Pinch, Geraldine (2002). Handbook of Egyptian mythology. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 127. ISBN 978-1-57607-242-4. Retrieved 2012-07-17.
3.Jump up ^ Remler, Pat (2010). Egyptian mythology, A to Z (3rd ed.). New York: Chelsea House. pp. 51–52. ISBN 978-1-60413-926-6. Retrieved 2012-07-17.
4.^ Jump up to: a b Nelson, Felicitas H. (2008). Talismans & amulets. New York: Sterling. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-4027-4625-3. Retrieved 2012-07-17.
5.Jump up ^ Neumann, Erich (1999). The origins and history of consciousness. London: Routledge. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-415-20944-1.
6.^ Jump up to: a b c Najovits, Simson (2004). Egypt, trunk of the tree : a modern survey of an ancient land. New York: Algora Pub. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-87586-256-9.
7.Jump up ^ Gordon, Andrew Hunt; Schwabe, Calvin W (2004). The Quick and the Dead: Biomedical Theory in Ancient Egypt First Edition. Brill/Styx. ISBN 90-04-12391-1.
8.Jump up ^ Russmann, Edna R.; James, Thomas Garnet Henry; Davies, W.V. (2001). Eternal Egypt : masterworks of ancient art from the British Museum. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-520-23086-6. Retrieved 2012-07-17.
9.Jump up ^ "Ancient Egypt – The Mythology". Retrieved 19 December 2011.
10.^ Jump up to: a b c d Hodel-Hoenes, Sigrid (2000). Life and death in ancient Egypt : scenes from private tombs in new kingdom Thebes. Trans. Warburton, David. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-8014-3506-5. Retrieved 2012-07-17.
11.Jump up ^ "Djed Pillar". The Walters Art Museum.
12.Jump up ^ Kangas, Ada (2010). Cohen, Steven E., ed. Assyrian reliefs from the palace of Ashurnasirpal II : a cultural biography. Hanover, N.H.: Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College. p. 169. ISBN 1-58465-817-7. Retrieved 2012-07-17.
13.Jump up ^ Harper, Katherine Anne; Brown, Robert L. (2002). The Roots of Tantra. SUNY Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-7914-5305-6. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
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MensajeTema: Re: Dyed   Jue Dic 15, 2016 11:55 pm

Djed constructed of gilded inlay on wood with red, blue, and green glass.The Walters Art Museum.

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MensajeTema: Re: Dyed   Jue Dic 15, 2016 11:58 pm




Seal ring featuring the inscription: "Ptah the one with durable favours" Hieroglyphs-(read from right, top): Ptah-(p-t-h)-(gives)-enduring-(Djed)-favors-(i.e.-libation offerings-(3, for plural)).
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MensajeTema: Re: Dyed   Vie Dic 16, 2016 12:03 am



Djed pillar Amulet
Period:Late Period–Ptolemaic PeriodDynasty:Dynasty 26–29Date:664–30 B.C.Geography:From EgyptMedium:FaienceDimensions:H. 4.5cm (1 3/4 in); w. 1.7cm (11/16 in); th. 0.9cm (3/8 in)
This emblem of Osiris, god of the underworld, was a potent symbol of regeneration and therefore made to accompany the mummy on its journey. What the form represents is unknown: a leafless tree or a pole with notches or attachments. Eventually it came to represent the backbone of Osiris and in the New Kingdom decorated the bases of coffins.
http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/548359
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MensajeTema: Re: Dyed   Vie Dic 16, 2016 12:08 am



Djed pillar




Period:Late Period–Ptolemaic PeriodDate:525–30 BCGeography:From EgyptMedium:Yellow GlassDimensions:H. 3.4 × W. 1.3 cm (1 5/16 × 1/2 in.)Credit Line:Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1917




Starting in the later Late Period and continuing through the Ptolemaic Period, glass a type of glass amulet cast by pressing the glass into a shallow open mold appears. The back was left rough, and the amulets may look ragged because glass overflowed the mold around the edges. The earlier amulets are monochrome, bi- or multicolor amulets supplement the repertoire during the Ptolemaic Period.




Some of the amulets can be specifically tied to spells of the Book of the Dead – for example, acc. no. 17.194.2526 – and most are clearly funerary amulets, presumably meant to be wrapped between the bandages of the mummy where the presence of the amulet would do its job irrespective of its degree of finish.




http://metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/559435


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MensajeTema: Re: Dyed   Jue Jun 15, 2017 12:14 am

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