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 Hierakompolis :actualizacion página

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MensajeTema: Hierakompolis :actualizacion página   Jue Ene 22, 2009 1:36 am

Updateada la página de Interactive Hierakompolis.

Parte del artículo el resto aquí:
http://www.archaeology.org/interactive/hierakonpolis/field08/2.html


Final 2008 operations and looking forward to 2009



A footed cup of Persian period date (6th-3rd centuries B.C.) from the Fort debris.



A cooking pot incised with the cartouche of Queen Hatshepsut (New Kingdom), is the only evidence for activity inside the Fort from the time it was built until the Sixth century. It appears to have been hallowed ground for at least 2,000 years after it was built.
In February 2009, we will face one of the biggest challenges in our efforts to conserve the Second Dynasty (ca. 2700 B.C.) mud-brick enclosure of King Khasekhemwy (a.k.a. the Fort). It will soon be time to do something permanent about the large and ugly gap in the interior face of the west wall, the last, but more serious, threat to the long-term survival of this intriguing monument. We have long known it was going to be a big job, but the true measure of this task only became fully apparent last season, when we began to flatten the dishevelled ground surface of the interior, which was no small job in itself, since it covers an area of about 47x57 m (or roughly 51x62 yards, the size of half an American football field).
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MensajeTema: Hierakompolis :actualizacion página   Vie Abr 17, 2009 6:29 am

2009 Field Note 1 - Saving the Fort


Fixing the gap on the corresponding gap on the exterior in 2007, and a good thing too!



The temporary supports were still doing their job, but there was clearly not a moment to spare.

While clearing the foundations we encountered the cutting for a Late Period burial and what are perhaps the last two bricks of the original interior façade still in situ (arrow).

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Within the southern gap, a lateral corridor hollowed out in the center of the wall made a complicated repair even more difficult!



Sparrows making a home in the Fort
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The scratching of little feet for millennia has created the large holes in the upper walls of the Fort.

Resurfacing the interior walls to support the top-heavy upper walls and stop the cycle of deterioration.
At the end of the 2008 season, we made a heroic effort to shore up (at least temporarily) the heavily damaged and collapsing central portion of the west wall--the only wall that is more or less intact along its entire length. Steel and timber supports were installed to hold it over the summer when it became clear that the central portion of this massive wall was settling into the great "central gap" hollowed out of its interior face. We had already filled the corresponding gap on the exterior but with nowhere else to go, now the wall was moving to settle into the deep and extremely fragile gap on the inside. Increasing cracks had made it clear that if this were allowed to continue, a massive collapse was all too likely, so we stepped in to try to stop this 9 m high, 5 m thick, and 67 m long wall in its tracks.
Returning in late January 2009, were we anxious to see how successful our attempts to halt the downward trajectory. The beginning of the season greeted us with a few isolated fallen bricks but no new major cracks--and no catastrophic collapse. It was with much relief we could see that our efforts to brace the wall had worked, but the strain on some of the beams was obvious. Had we not erected the temporary shoring, we would have had a much different and less welcoming reception. But there was little time for congratulations--now we needed to begin the permanent filling of the ugly gaps with new mud brick and to stabilize the wall as soon as possible.
Our steel and timber braces allowed us to work in safety in the critical zone, as we prepared the ground for the new brickwork required. We were well aware that all areas of collapse have a corresponding area of compromised foundations below them (i.e., pits--made by animals, archaeologists, or looters--now filled with sand). In the case of the interior central gap, archival photographs showed Late period (post-1000 B.C.) burials were to blame. These had been cut into the walls at foundation level and then exposed by Garstang's 1905 excavations. As always we prepared a small area for foundation reinforcement--about 1.5 m long--and filled it with silty soil compacted in layers with water to make a hard ground surface. During this procedure we re-encountered the cuttings for these burials, and in the small space between two of them, we uncovered what may be the last two bricks of the original interior surface of the wall still extant and in situ, the rest of the wall surface having eroded away over the millennia. This discovery helped us to calibrate just how far out from the surviving wall face we should begin to rebuild the wall when filling the gap.


Building the buttresses or columns of brickwork over the reinforced area to incrementally fill the gaps and implement the permanent repairs

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The pizza oven method of delivering bricks into the lateral corridor

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The pizza is ready! The lateral corridor is consigned to the pages of history!

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The remains of matting between the courses of the first phase wall Matting was used to provide strength through thick walls in many ancient Egyptian mud-brick structures.

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Matting made of juncus reeds was used frequently to line Predynastic graves, as in this well-preserved example in the worker's cemetery at HK43, at Hierakonpolis.
Once an area of foundation reinforcement dried and hard, we built a buttress, or column of bricks extending upward to support the upper walls, first at the sides of the gap to provide much need additional stability. Only then did we felt comfortable about really entering the breach. We plan to build successive buttresses that will be joined together and thus form a solid infill to repair and "complete" the wall.
Fixing the deep and rather frightening recesses within the gap was every bit of the challenge we feared it would be. The southernmost of the two recesses that make up the "central gap" included a lateral "corridor" extending southward for more than 10 meters through the core of the wall. Since we had put in the bracing, we could finally, but cautiously, enter the cavity and find out just how scary it was.
With the jacks supporting the so-called roof of the gap, we began clearing away the fallen debris. This allowed us, for the first time, to get the measure of this gap. The tape measure doesn't lie, but we had to suspend belief when we reeled it out to more than 3 m. Peering in, we could now see clearly that the first phase wall at its core had been completely breached, and the back wall of the gap was actually the the inner face of the second phase wall cladding the exterior. Careful scrutiny revealed the way the bricks were laid to fill in between the pilasters of the first phase wall. In this way that we knew it was actually not a bricked up doorway, but just a deep and ugly hole.
Slowly we realized what a truly precarious state the Fort had been in. Between the gap on the exterior wall (which we filled and repaired in 2007) and this corresponding gap on the interior, there had not been 1.5 m of wall as we had originally supposed, but actually only two brick length--in other words, only 52 cm, holding up the entire west wall! Luckily we had repaired the exterior gap first, giving the wall the 1.5 m of support we thought it already had!
We needed to fill this gap fast, but before we could do so, we had to deal with the lateral corridor. This was accomplished by Richard positioning himself in the cavity of the southern gap so as to be just one leap away from safety if anything started to shift. So positioned (and pretty uncomfortably), Richard then flung mud into the corridor by the handful followed by brick fragments. Once nicely coated, whole bricks were slid into place on a plank using the "pizza oven" method that had proven so successful in previous seasons. Using this method the corridor was eventually filled solidly and consigned to the archives with a stout masonry wall. Once accomplished, our mason, Abdullah Nour, gradually filled in the cavity under careful watch for any brick fall from overhead. What a relief when that gaping hole was reduced to a mere overhang a few bricks deep!

SIGUEN LAS NOTICIAS EN LA PÁGINA WEB..y hay MÁS FOTOS

http://www.archaeology.org/interactive/hierakonpolis/field09/1.html
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MensajeTema: Re: Hierakompolis :actualizacion página   Jue Mar 20, 2014 1:18 am

More evidence for cat taming at the Predynastic elite cemetery of Hierakonpolis (Upper Egypt




Continued excavations at the Predynastic elite cemetery HK6 at Hierakonpolis have yielded new evidence for the cultural control of cats during the Naqada IC-IIB period (c. 3800–3600 BC). In the same burial ground where evidence was previously found for the keeping of jungle cat (Felis chaus), a small pit was discovered containing six cats. The animals that were buried simultaneously, are a male and a female, and four kittens belonging to two different litters. The long bone measurements of the adult individuals clearly fall in the range of Felis silvestris and outside those of F. chaus and F. margarita. Comparison of the measurements – through the log-ratio technique – with data from the literature, as well as morphological characteristics of the mandible, suggest that the animals are domestic. It is argued that these results should be used with caution, since the criteria established to distinguish wild and domestic cat in European sites may reflect differences at the subspecies level (wild Felis silvestris silvestris versus the domestic form derived from Felis silvestris lybica). In northern Africa only F.s. lybica (wild or domestic) occurs, thus the established criteria may not be adequate when applied to Egyptian material. However, possible circumstantial evidence for the cultural control of the cats buried at Hierakonpolis is provided by their ages at death which indicate a deviation from the birth pattern reported in Egyptian wild cats.
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MensajeTema: Re: Hierakompolis :actualizacion página   Jue Mar 20, 2014 1:19 am

. Introduction
In the traditional view, the domestication of Felis silvestris occurred in Egypt around 4000 years ago, during the Middle Kingdom (c. 1950 BC), or on circumstantial evidence perhaps 300 years earlier in the late Old Kingdom (c. 2310 BC) ( Malek, 1993). This has been challenged by a much earlier find from Cyprus that demonstrates a close relationship between cats and humans around 9500 years ago ( Vigne et al., 2004). The Cypriote evidence, a cat buried in close association with a human, suggests that the domestication process may have started when humans in the Levant became sedentary and their cereal storage attracted rodents, and in turn cats. Further, in a recent article ( Hu et al., 2013), based on stable isotope evidence, it has been suggested that small felids lived in the vicinity of humans about 5300 years ago in an early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. In Egypt itself, indications for the taming of cats, prior to the traditionally accepted date, was limited to the report of a possible cat skeleton near the feet of a man in a grave dating to the Badarian period (5th millennium BC) ( Brunton, 1937: 34; Flores, 2003: 82), but the remains are unavailable for examination and the identity of the animal is unconfirmed. More reliable evidence is provided by the skeleton of a jungle cat (Felis chaus) dated to 3700 BC ( Linseele et al., 2007 and Linseele et al., 2008). This young adult, found in a group burial in the elite cemetery of the Predynastic period (HK6) at Hierakonpolis, exhibits a femur and a humerus with a healed fracture, indicating that the animal had been tended to for several weeks prior to its sacrifice. Continued excavation of the same graveyard has now yielded secure evidence for the presence of the wild cat (F. silvestris). Below the find circumstances are described and the status of the cats (wild, tamed, domestic?) is discussed on the basis of morphological, osteometric and demographic information.

2. The cat burial at Hierakonpolis
Hierakonpolis (25°06′N, 32°46′E) is located on the west bank of the Nile, 17 km north of the modern town of Edfu in Upper Egypt (Fig. 1). This large Predynastic site consisted of domestic quarters, industrial zones and ceremonial centres as well as cemeteries for the different strata of society. Excavations in the cemetery of the elite segment of the population called HK6 started in the late 1970s (Adams, 2000) and are still ongoing. The HK6 cemetery is unique in the Predynastic period for the number and variety of wild and domestic animal taxa it contains. Besides the traditional domestic species (cattle, sheep, goat, dog, donkey) a large number of wild species have been found: anubis baboon (Papio anubis), aurochs (Bos primigenius), hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus), wild donkey (Equus africanus), hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), elephant (Loxodonta africana), jungle cat (Felis chaus), leopard (Panthera pardus), crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and ostrich (Struthio camelus). Recent excavations have shown that many of the animal graves are subsidiary to the large tombs of the human elite of the early Naqada II period (c. 3700–3600 BC), which were placed at the centre of mortuary complexes and surrounded by smaller graves not only of (presumably) family members and court officials, but also a variety of animals, both domestic and wild. These animals were deliberately and carefully buried whole in graves of their own, either singly or in groups usually of the same species. More rarely they accompany a human burial in the grave. Animals found in conjunction with humans include dogs, baboons, goats and hartebeest. Faunal remains representing butchered part of domestic animals offered as food are also present, but are not considered here as buried animals ( Friedman et al., 2011, Linseele et al., 2007, Linseele et al., 2008, Van Neer et al., 2004 and Van Neer et al., 2014, in press). Animal graves also occur in association with architectural features in the cemetery, such as enclosure walls and funerary temples. Their sacrifice and burial seems to have marked the boundaries of certain precincts ( Friedman, 2010).


http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440314000636
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MensajeTema: Re: Hierakompolis :actualizacion página   Jue Mar 20, 2014 1:20 am

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MensajeTema: Re: Hierakompolis :actualizacion página   Jue Mar 20, 2014 1:21 am

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MensajeTema: Re: Hierakompolis :actualizacion página   Vie Mar 21, 2014 6:48 am

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