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MensajeTema: El hombre E   Sáb Sep 10, 2011 5:24 am

artículo del año 2006 de Bob Brier


The Mystery of Unknown Man E


Bob Brier


Was a mummy found in less-than-royal wrappings a disgraced prince who plotted to murder his father, Ramesses III?




On a day at the end of June 1886, Gaston Maspero, head of the Egyptian Antiquities Service, was unwrapping the mummies of kings and queens found in a cache at Deir el-Bahri, near the Valley of the Kings. Inside a plain, undecorated coffin that offered no clues to the deceased's identity, Maspero found something that shocked him. There, wrapped in a sheepskin--a ritually unclean object for ancient Egyptians--was a young man, hands and feet bound, who seemed to be screaming. There was no incision on the left abdomen, through which the embalmers normally removed the internal organs; the man had not been afforded the traditional mummification. Maspero was convinced there had been foul play, as he wrote in Les Momies Royales de Deir-el-Bahari (1889):

All those who saw him first hand thought that [he] looked as though he had been poisoned. The contraction of the abdomen and stomach, the desperate movement with which the head is thrown back, the expression of excruciating pain spread over the face hardly allow for any other explanation.
Daniel Fouquet, the physician who examined the mummy at the time, agreed that he had been poisoned and said, "the last convulsions of horrid agony can, after thousands of years, still be seen." A chemist named Mathey, who did some analyses on the mummy, felt that "the wretched man must have been deliberately asphyxiated--most likely by being buried alive."

All three investigators had let their imaginations run wild. A quarter century later, the mummy was examined by the anatomist Grafton Elliott Smith, who was far more experienced than Maspero, Fouquet, and Mathey. Smith quickly dismissed their theories about the cause of death, pointing out in The Royal Mummies (1912) that "a corpse that was dead of any complaint might fall into just such an attitude as this body has assumed." The real questions remain to this day, Who is this mummy, and how did his unembalmed body, wrapped in a sheepskin and buried in an unmarked coffin, come to rest with the greatest kings and queens of Egypt?

Many have speculated about the identity of Unknown Man E (designated such by Maspero, who assigned letters to each of the half dozen anonymous mummies in the cache). We know from the royal archives of the Hittite Empire, found a century ago at Bogazkoy in central Turkey, that a prince was sent to Egypt to marry the widow of Tutankhamun, but he was murdered on the border of Egypt. Some have suggested that Unknown Man E is that prince, and that is why he, a foreigner, was buried in a sheepskin. As evidence, they point to the Egyptian papyrus known as "The Tale of Sinuhe." In it, the pharaoh tries to convince Sinhue, a former friend and confidant who has been living abroad, to return to Egypt. The king says, "You shall not die in a foreign land...you shall not be placed in a sheepskin as they make your grave."

Another explanation that has been offered is that Unknown Man E was an important personage who died abroad, perhaps on a military campaign in a region with limited knowledge of, or access to, mummification technology. The local priests did what they could to preserve the body, added the sheepskin because it was appropriate in their beliefs, and shipped it home.

Maspero suggested that the mummy was that of Prince Pentewere, the son of Ramesses III (1185-1153 B.C.) who was involved in a conspiracy against his father. The conspirators, including Queen Tiy and her son Pentewere, were caught and either executed or, in the case of the highest-ranking ones, such as Pentewere, allowed to take their own lives. But would a convicted criminal be buried with the royal family?




The wooden coffin (left) holding an unknown mummy was found in a royal burial cache in 1881 (illustration). Hacked-out areas in it show the coffin was hastily adapted for the mummy, possibly a son of Ramesses III who tried to overthrow his father. (Pat Remler)






Much of the speculation about Unknown Man E stemmed from the fact that no one had seen the mummy in nearly a hundred years. All we have had to go on are the early reports and a few photos taken more than a century ago. In late 2004, with the permission and assistance of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities, I had the opportunity to examine him. My hope was that we might find clues to the date, cause of death, and identification of the mummy and explain how such a burial could happen. While I cannot prove with the current evidence that this is the mummy of Pentewere, that identification seems to fit the curious facts of Unknown Man E.

Bob Brier is Senior Research Fellow at the C.W. Post Campus of Long Island University and is also a contributing editor to ARCHAEOLOGY




http://www.archaeology.org/0603/abstracts/mysteryman.html
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Sáb Sep 10, 2011 5:30 am


Screaming Mummy Mystery
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Sáb Sep 10, 2011 8:26 am

Mucho se ha especulado con esta momia y las circunstancias que rodearon su muerte, y no es para menos; ese rostro desencajado y sus supuestas relaciones con complots reales y demás ponen en bandeja toda suerte de hipotesis una más veridicas y otras más fantasiosas; llegué a leer que este hombre fue enterrado vivo, y de ahí su rostro cosa que no tiene mucho sentido.

Interesante momia Herjuf gracias por el video

Saludos!
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Sáb Sep 10, 2011 11:44 pm

si, han hablado mucho sobre esta momia y la posible identificación con el hijo de Ramses III, sobre la conspiración y sobre las circunstancias de su muerte.

Aqui dejo otro artículo:

Mystery of the screaming mummy


By Kathryn Knight



It was a blood-curdling discovery. The mummy of a young man with his hands and feed bound, his face contorted in an eternal scream of pain. But who was he and how did he die?
On a scorching hot day at the end of June 1886, Gaston Maspero, head of the Egyptian Antiquities Service, was unwrapping the mummies of the 40 kings and queens found a few years earlier in an astonishing hidden cache near the Valley of the Kings.

The 1881 discovery of the tombs, in the Deir El Bahri valley, 300 miles south of Cairo, had been astonishing and plentiful. Hidden from the world for centuries were some of the great Egyptian pharaohs - Rameses the Great, Seti I and Tuthmosis III. Yet this body, buried alongside them, was different, entombed inside a plain, undecorated coffin that offered no clues to the deceased's identity.
It was an unexpected puzzle and, once the coffin was opened, Maspero found himself even more shocked.





Unexpected: Alongside the remains of great Egyptian pharoahs lay the body of a young man, his face locked in an eternal blood-curdling scream, in a plain, undecorated coffin
There, wrapped in a sheep or goatskin - a ritually unclean object for ancient Egyptians - lay the body of a young man, his face locked in an eternal blood-curdling scream. It was a spine-tingling sight, and one that posed even more troubling questions: here was a mummy, carefully preserved, yet caught in the moment of death in apparently excrutiating pain.

He had been buried in exalted company, yet been left without an inscription, ensuring he would be consigned to eternal damnation, as the ancient Egyptians believed identity was the key to entering the afterlife. Moreover, his hands and feet had been so tightly bound that marks still remained on the bones.
Who could he be, this screaming man, assigned the anonymous label 'Man E' in the absence of a proper name?

An autopsy, performed by physicians in 1886 in the presence of Maspero, did little to shed any light on the subject.
One of the physicians, Daniel Fouquet, believed the contracted shape of his stomach cavity showed he had been poisoned, writing in his report that 'the last convulsions of horrid agony can, after thousands of years, still be seen' - yet his science was unable to help him ascertain why.

Even marrying these findings with historical documents only allowed experts to speculate. Some believed 'Man E' was the traitor son of Rameses III, who'd been involved in a coup to remove him from the throne, others that he was an Egyptian governor who had died abroad and been returned to his homeland for burial. Some believed the unconventional manner of his mummification showed that he was not Egyptian at all, but a member of a rival Hittite dynasty, who had died on Egyptian soil.
All explanations were possible, yet Man E's true identity seemed destined to remain a mystery.





Hidden from the world for centuries, buried beneath the vast desert sands, the magnificent Deir El Bahri templre (pictured) where Man E, the 'screaming mummy', was discovered
As Dr Zahi Hawass, Secretary General of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities, puts it, 'We'd never seen a mummy like this, suffering. It's not normal, and it tells us something happened, but we did not know exactly what.'
Until now. Today, nearly 130 years after his body was first uncovered, a team of scientists has brought the wonders of modern forensic techniques to bear on the enigma.

Using sophisticated-technology, including CT scanning, Xrays and facial reconstruction, to examine the mummy, they uncovered tantalising new clues that could reveal his identity, all under the watchful eye of Five's TV crew, who are making a series of documentaries hoping to unravel some of Egypt's great secrets.

Their findings suggest that Man E is indeed Prince Pentewere, elder son of Rameses III, who, with his mother, Tiy, had evolved a plan to assassinate the pharaoh and ascend to the throne.
Certainly, the theory has a number of supporters. Among them is Dr Susan Redford, an Egyptologist from Pennsylvania State University, who points out that an ancient papyrus scroll details a plot by Tiy to dethrone Rameses III in favour of their son, even though he was not the nominated heir.

The plot was apparently supported by a number of high level courtiers, suggesting that they felt Pentewere had a legitimate claim, even though the accession was usually thought to be divinely ordained.



A wall painting of pharoah Rameses III. The pharoah faced plots by his elder son Prince Pentewere and wife Tiy to dethrone him. Some believe that Man E is Prince Pentewere
'The scroll tells us that the coup was very quickly discovered and the plotters brought to trial,' she explained. 'They were sentenced to death, but the papyrus also tells us that Pentewere was spared this fate. Perhaps because of his royal status he was allowed to commit suicide.'

He would almost certainly have done so, she says, by drinking poison.
Yet other findings from the 1886 postmortem seemed to dispute the body might be that of Pentewere. It suggested that Man E had been buried with his internal organs intact, which was extraordinarily unusual, even for a traitor, and a boost to theories that the body had been mummified elsewhere at the time - or had not even been Egyptian at all.
Some academics believed that the body may have been that of a rival Hittite prince, basing their theory on a letter written by Tutankhamun's widow Ankhesenamun.

The pharaoh died without leaving an heir and, in her letter, his wife had appealed to the then King of the Hittites that he allow her to marry one of his sons, who would become king and ensure her own continuing power.

Man E, some academics believed, was just such a prince, one who had travelled to Egypt to meet with his new bride and befallen a cruel and murderous fate.
Yet today's forensic findings seemed to dispute this theory: a modern 3D scan showed the mummy had been completely eviscerated, as was customary for important Egyptians




Studies: The mummy's remains undergo a 3D scan, which showed that the body was completely eviscerated, as his customary for important Egyptians
Moreover, new analysis of the condition of his joints and teeth also appeared to overturn earlier theories as to the mummy's age at the time of death: Fouquet had believed him to be in his early 20s, too young for Pentewere. Now, it seemed, he could have been anywhere up to the age of 40, consistent again with Rameses' son.
Equally revealing was a full facial reconstruction. Using modern forensic techniques, a 3D image of Man E's skull was created, revealing what would have been a strong and handsome face, with a prominent nose and long jaw - features which do not correlate with a Hittite background.

Egyptians had a long lower face and an extended cranium from the forehead to the back of the head, as did Man E, suggesting he's a ancient Egyptian.
There are, of course, still anomalies - the sheepskin covering, the unorthodox way the body was preserved without a name.

The passing of the centuries has ensured that some of the Screaming Man's secrets are destined to remain unsolved, and as Dylan Bickerstaffe, an eminent Egyptologist, puts it, 'With some questions we found the answers to be more ordinary than we thought,' he says. 'But we've also answered others and found the answers to be much stranger.'

It is certainly enough to convince Dr Hawass, who now believes that this most enduring of Egyptian mysteries has been solved.

'It seems to me this man has been sitting in the Cairo Museum waiting for someone to identify him,' he says. 'Now I really do believe that this unknown man is not unknown any more.'


Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1083945/Mystery-screaming-mummy.html#ixzz1XckEQJQc
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Dom Sep 11, 2011 8:55 am

HERJUF escribió:
si, han hablado mucho sobre esta momia y la posible identificación con el hijo de Ramses III, sobre la conspiración y sobre las circunstancias de su muerte.

Si, varios autores coinciden en señalarlo como hijo de Ramsés III, de cualquier modo lo cierto es que debió ser una persona de su entorno y por ende alguien influyente en la corte, un hijo o un yerno, alguien emparentado con la familia real.

Este tema esta muy bien, gracias por el articulo Herjuf

Saludos!!
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Lun Sep 12, 2011 9:28 am

Fotos de national Geographic




http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/series/egypt-unwrapped/3914/Photos#tab-Photos/3
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Lun Sep 12, 2011 9:01 pm

Tremenda expresión!
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Mar Sep 13, 2011 4:43 am

interesante el tema, Herjuf
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Mar Sep 13, 2011 12:04 pm

HERJUF escribió:
Fotos de national Geographic




http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/series/egypt-unwrapped/3914/Photos#tab-Photos/3
No se, pero podría ser que el desencaje de la mandíbula se deba a la relajación muscular post-mortem, creo que a muchos cadáveres les pasa...O también podría ser que su expresión sea el reflejo de una muerte violenta o dolorosa pale quien sabe...
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Miér Sep 14, 2011 3:08 am

Aicha escribió:
HERJUF escribió:
Fotos de national Geographic




http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/series/egypt-unwrapped/3914/Photos#tab-Photos/3
No se, pero podría ser que el desencaje de la mandíbula se deba a la relajación muscular post-mortem, creo que a muchos cadáveres les pasa...O también podría ser que su expresión sea el reflejo de una muerte violenta o dolorosa pale quien sabe...

podría ser, si
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Miér Sep 14, 2011 3:09 am

reconstrucción forense de la cara del hombre E








anubis4.2000
By using modern CT technology and the methods of forensic science,
Dr Caroline Wilkinson was able to reconstruct the facial features of
the enigmatic Unknown Man E.
Photo Sources: (L) METRO.co.uk. (R) Mirror.co.uk
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Miér Sep 14, 2011 3:10 am

artículo


The Strange Case of Unknown Man E
Opened December 9'th, 2000
New images added February 9, 2009
Unknown Man E (c. 1518?-1504? B.C.)
18'th Dynasty?
Provenance: DB 320
Discovery Date: 1860? (official discovery 1881)
Current Location: Cairo Museum CG61098

Biographical data: Unknown.

Details: Few Egyptian mummies have effected the imaginations of otherwise level-headed researchers as much as the mummy of Unknown Man E. The first accounts of the unwrapping of this mummy bristle with adjectives like repulsive, noxious, and hideous, all of which indicate the strong subjective responses Unknown Man E initially produced.
Dr. Fouquet and the chemist, M. Mathey, who jointly unwrapped the mummy on June 6, 1886, along with Gaston Maspero who supervised the proceedings, all published reports of their findings. Mathey's report appeared first in the Bulletin de l'Institut Egyptien in 1886, soon after the mummy was unwrapped. This was reprinted, along with the accounts of Maspero and Dr. Fouquet, in Les Momies Royales de Deir el Bahri (1889.) The most recent analysis by Dylan Bickerstaffe, which appeared in K M T (Spring, 1999), presents a concise review of these early accounts and adopts the most rational tone.
The mummy of Unknown Man E exhibited some very unusual features. It had been enshrouded in some fashion by a sheepskin which still retained its white wool. The fact that wool remained on the sheepskin is an important detail which will be discussed below. The presence of this sheepskin has generated much speculation, primarily because Herodotus had written that woolen garments were considered ritually unclean by the Egyptians. Bickerstaffe points out that no dynastic burial other than Unknown Man E's has been found in which a sheepskin was used as a shroud, and also notes that one ancient Egyptian source, The Tale of Sinhue, does imply that burial in a sheepskin was undesirable. Beneath this unusual sheepskin was a layer of linen wrappings described by Maspero as a "thick network of bandages" which he dated to the 18'th Dynasty, perhaps basing his opinion on the way they had been bound around the mummy. Under these, the examiners found a layer of natron (NaCl and Na2CO3) which had been applied to a second, final layer of bandages. The natron had absorbed fat from the body and emitted a strong putrid odor.
Fouquet records that the bandages covered by natron had been "impregnated with an adhesive substance" and could only be removed with a saw, a method that unfortunately would have destroyed any inscriptions which might have appeared on the bandages. He also noted the superior quality of the linen used for the wrappings, which indicated that Unknown Man E had probably held a high social status. Fouquet discovered that the bandages had been held in place around the upper arms, wrists and lower legs with knotted lengths of linen tied so tightly that they had left a definite imprint on the skin of the upper arms. The frequently repeated misconception that Unknown Man E had been bound with leather thongs probably derives from a misinterpretation of Fouquet's statements about the tight linen wrappings.
Under the tightly bound second layer of bandages, the examiners discovered another coating of a substance which Fouquet said consisted of natron, crushed resin, and lime (CaO.) This material had been applied directly to the skin and covered the whole body, and Maspero commented that it had been done "with a skill that betrayed long experience of this kind of work." Mathey described this chemical substance as "encasing" the body, and measured its thickness as being between 0.10 and 0.15 centimeters. He also said that the substance was "extremely caustic," which is to be expected if calcium oxide were present in the mixture. Mathey makes the interesting observation that this substance was hygroscopic, and that it rapidly absorbed moisture from the air. This is another characteristic of calcium oxide, which deliquesces and becomes chemically basic when hydrated.The fact that calcium oxide (sometimes called "quicklime") was present in the embalming material, and that it was found in an unslaked (unhydrated) condition when first exposed to the air, have implications which will be discussed below.

http://anubis4_2000.tripod.com/UnknownManE/ManE.htm
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Miér Sep 14, 2011 3:11 am

After removing the layer of chemicals, the examiners discovered the body of a young man estimated to be around 23-24 years of age. His face was contorted into a grimace and the muscles of his abdomen were severely constricted. By making a small opening in the lower back region of the mummy, Fouquet discovered that the internal organs were still in place contrary to the usual Egyptian practice of removing them. The penis was also still intact, although it was missing when G. E. Smith examined the mummy years later. Maspero stated that Unknown Man E had been circumcised but Fouquet was not certain about this, and believed that the glans could have been exposed (perhaps by the pressure of the bandages?) at the time the mummy was wrapped and was not necessarily evidence of circumcision.
Unknown Man E's ears had been pierced, and his gold earrings were still in place. Fouquet described them as hollow tubes "tapered at both ends and bent back to form an ellipse" and notes that they are identical to earrings found on the mummy of Pinudjem I. However, since earrings of this style were manufactured during a wide range of historical periods, they offered little information that could be of use in dating Unknown Man E's burial. Bickerstaffe mentions the interesting fact that the embalmers had not stolen these earrings. Two canes with heads made out of braided reeds were also found in Unknown Man E's coffin. The significance of the canes is unknown, but Bickerstaffe relates that at a lecture given by Geoffrey Martin, his attention was called to the fact that Maya, Tutankhamen's treasurer, had been depicted in his tomb holding two canes. The current location of the earrings and canes found with Unknown Man E is not known. They may have been misplaced somewhere in the Cairo Museum, or perhaps stolen and sold on the antiquities market.


de la misma página web
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Miér Sep 14, 2011 3:12 am

The Osiriform coffin in which Unknown Man E had been buried (CG61023--click here for photo of coffin & also see recent color photo below) was painted white and was completely undecorated. It lacked features or inscriptions that would aid in the process of determining its date or the identity of the mummy which it contained. According to Aidan Dodson, who discussed the coffin with Bickerstaffe, its crossed arms became a common feature from the 19'th Dynasty onward, but its simple headdress indicated a mid-18'th Dynasty date. It had been made out of expensive cedar wood, and Bickerstaffe comments on the unusual fact that it had not been appropriated for use in another burial as had so many of the other, poorer coffins found in DB 320. He also points out that neither the coffin or the mummy had been rifled by thieves, perhaps because the undecorated appearance of the coffin convinced them that it did not contain objects of any great worth.



Several theories have been advanced to explain the unusual features of this burial. The examiners first hypothesized that Unknown Man E had been impaled because his perineum was badly torn. This idea was abandoned, however, when Fouquet determined that the large intestine was undamaged and that the anal injury must have been post mortem. The second theory proposed that Unknown Man E had died after ingesting some kind of convulsant poison. Based primarily on the observable constriction of the abdomen, which was initially interpreted as evidence of violent convulsions, this theory seemed weakened by a more thorough consideration of the manner in which the preservative chemicals had reacted with the body tissues over time. Since the internal organs had not been removed, they slowly shrank under the dehydrating effect of the chemicals and consequently constricted the abdominal area. However, as George B. Johnson pointed out to me in a recent communication, the fact that the digestive organs contained no traces of food is also indicative of poisoning since any stomach contents would most likely have been voided by vomiting after the ingestion of a toxic substance.
A third theory, which remains popular to this day, was finally proposed, namely that Unknown Man E had been buried alive, probably for committing some terrible crime. Maspero even went so far as to suggest (in contradiction to his earlier 18'th Dynasty dating of the mummy) that Unknown Man E may actually be Pentewere, the 20'th Dynasty prince implicated in the famous harem conspiracy to assassinate Ramesses III. All the peculiar features of the burial seemed explicable given the assumption that Unknown Man E had been buried alive. His contorted expression, the fact that the organs had not been removed, the tightly bound wrappings, the taboo sheepskin, and the coffin lacking in the magical spells needed to safeguard the spirit of the deceased in the Underworld seemed to fit neatly with the theory of premature burial. (One could even interpret the two canes found with Unknown Man E as "bastinados" used to whip the soles of his feet during an interrogation prior to his premature burial.)
All these theories make the following assumptions: (i.) that Unknown Man E had been "embalmed" by Egyptians; (ii.) that his facial expression indicated that he died in great pain; and (iii.) that the divergences from common Egyptian funerary practices found in his burial were forms of ritual degradation and punishment. These assumptions arose in the minds of observers whose evaluations of the burial were demonstrably discolored by subjective reactions to the admittedly unpleasant odor and physical appearance of the mummy.
Had Maspero, Fouquet and Mathey not been so influenced by Unknown Man E's frightful grimace, they would have probably concluded that the unusual features of his burial had a more plausible explanation than the premature burial theory provided. These features seem to indicate that Unknown Man E's mummy had been prepared by non-Egyptian embalmers who were only partly familiar with Egyptian methods of preserving the dead, and exhibit the kind of "mixed" characteristics that one would expect in a burial that had occurred outside of Egypt in a territory of the Empire influenced to some extent by Egyptian customs. The use of natron as a preservative, the wrapping of the body in expensive linens, and the anthropoid coffin are all classic Egyptian elements. But the sheepskin shroud and the use of calcium oxide as a preservative are foreign features which can be traced to funerary practices in non-Egyptian parts of the Mediterranean.
The use of calcium oxide seems to point toward an ancient Greek influence. In Greek, the word "sarcophagus" means "flesh eater" and was used to designate the large stone receptacles filled with quicklime (CaO) in which corpses were placed. Much more harsh in its desiccating properties than natural Egyptian natron, this chemical would have been avoided by Egyptian embalmers who wanted to preserve rather than destroy the tissues of the body. The Greeks who used this method of treating corpses mistakenly believed that Egyptian sarcophagi were employed for the same purpose. Whether this use of quicklime was peculiar to the Greeks or spread throughout the Mediterranean and Middle East is at present unknown to me.
The fact that the natron and quicklime mixture had been carefully distributed over Unknown Man E's body is inconsistent with the idea of premature burial. Even had he been tied and held down, the man would have struggled as the highly caustic chemical burned and destroyed his skin, thereby making its application far from neat. Maspero observed that those responsible for "embalming" Unknown Man E must have had a lot of experience in using this technique, and this further points to a non-Egyptian source for the method of preparing the mummy. Where in Egypt could one gain such experience? No other Egyptian mummy yet discovered was embalmed in this fashion.
The observation that the natron and lime mixture was still able to absorb moisture from the air indicates that it had not been completely hydrated, or saturated, by body fluids. Yet there is more than enough liquid in the body of an adult man to saturate the quantity of the chemicals used to coat Unknown Man E's body to the thickness measured by Mathey. Had these chemicals become saturated, it is unlikely that the fluids absorbed by them would have evaporated over the years since they were covered with two layers of tightly bound bandages (with the innermost layer soaked in resins that had hardened to form a shell-like covering.) Over these was placed the sheepskin, and finally a coffin lid, all of which could have prevented the evaporation of any moisture absorbed by the hygroscopic chemicals. (That substances can endure for centuries in an aqueous condition is proven by the liquid found in the canopic chest of IV'th Dynasty Queen Hetepheres.) The fact that some calcium oxide was still present on Unknown Man E in an unhydrated state suggests that it was applied after his body had already been partly desiccated by some other means, perhaps by laying on hot sand in sunlight. This, of course, entails that he was dead when the embalmers wrapped him.
The fact that wool remained on the sheepskin which enshrouded Unknown Man E is also significant in that it proves that the hide had been cured. (Wool, fur and hair all slough off uncured hides.) It was not simply skinned and wrapped about the body in an untreated condition so that it would slowly shrink and suffocate the person unfortunate enough to be encased within. (Such a method of torture/execution was used by certain American Indian tribes, and it is sometimes stated incorrectly that this was how Unknown Man E met his end.) Since such sheepskins were deemed ritually unclean by the Egyptians one must wonder where in Egypt such a commodity, which would take time, skill, and experience to prepare, could be found. A more likely explanation for the sheepskin is that it had been prepared outside of Egypt in a country where such hides were valued and used in burials. In his article, Bickerstaffe points out that the Hyksos were buried with sheep, and that the Tale of Sinhue describes "Asiatics" as being buried wrapped in sheepskins. This again indicates that Unknown Man E was probably "embalmed" in a foreign country where sheepskins were cured and employed in a funereal context.
If Unknown Man E had lain in the open for some period of time, rigor mortis would have set in and he would have preserved the posture in which he died. The embalmers would have experienced difficulty in placing him in the traditional pose used in burials, and this might explain the tightness with which the bandages had been wrapped about the body. They needed to tightly wrap Unknown Man E in order to keep him straightened out.
Based on all these observations, it is possible to recreate a scenerio capable of explaining Unknown Man E's burial without recourse to the premature burial hypothesis. We know from the expensive linen wrappings, the golden earrings, the cedar wood coffin, and perhaps the two canes (which may be a sign of office) that Unknown Man E possessed high social rank. He may have been an Egyptian governor or dignitary of some sort living in one of the Palestinian outposts of the Egyptian Empire during the New Kingdom. (G. E. Smith confirmed Maspero's first opinion by dating the mummy to the XVIII'th Dynasty, no later than the reign of Tuthmosis II.) He may have died while hunting in the desert, and was not found immediately. By that time, the body had stiffened into a pose and facial expression inappropriate for burial, and had also become semi-desiccated. The provincial embalmers did their best to preserve him in a proper Egyptian manner, but fell back upon local embalming procedures and funerary customs. Unknown Man E was treated by these foreign embalmers with natron and quicklime, wrapped tightly to straighten his limbs into an acceptable position, and given a sheepskin shroud (which may have been a mark of honor among their race.)
Unknown Man E, like most adult Egyptians, had begun preparing for his funeral and already had an undecorated coffin made of locally obtained cedar wood. The local embalmers placed him in this coffin, and, since they probably did not know how to inscribe or decorate it in the traditional Egyptian manner, simply left it blank and shipped it, along with its occupant, back to Egypt. After arriving in Egypt, the horrified Egyptian necropolis officials would have discovered the offensive sheepskin. Not wishing to touch it, they decided to leave the coffin undecorated and buried Unknown Man E as quickly as possible in his own tomb. Since he was found in the DB 320 cache, we can be reasonably sure that his tomb was in the Valley of the Kings or close enough to the Valley to have been inspected by the necropolis officials in charge of caching the royal mummies. He had probably been held in high esteem by the ruling monarch (Tuthmosis II?) who had granted him the privilege of a tomb in the Royal Necropolis (much in the manner of Maihirpri.) He was discovered by the 20'th-'21'st Dynasty restorers who, considering only his rank and ignoring the sheepskin, reburied him in DB 320 with the other royal mummies.
That Maspero and his assistants did not come up with a scenario like the one just presented is probably due to their over-dramatization of Unknown Man E's facial expression. G. E. Smith remained entirely unmoved by it, however, and wrote in 1912 that any number of factors could have resulted in this type of expression at the time of death. He pointed out that other mummies who were certainly not buried alive had similarly gaping-mouthed expressions, and cited the mummy of Inhapi as an example. To this can be added the mummy of Merytamen, which, according to Bickerstaffe, looks like it's howling. (Click here to see Inhapi and Merytamen.) (Source Bibliography: BIE, series 2, no. 2, 1881; CCR, p. 39; DRN, pp. 200, 206, 212EMbm, pp. 67-68; KMT [Spring, 1999, vol. 10, no. 1], pp. 68-76; KMT [Winter 1992-1993, vol. 3, no. 4], p. 28; MiAE, p. 154; MMM, pp. 66-67; MR, p. 548-551, 778-782, 782-787; RM, p. 114ff.)

Photo Credit: RM (Cairo, 1912,) pl. XCIV. For high resolution photos of this mummy see the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plates XCIV and XCV.)
http://anubis4_2000.tripod.com/UnknownManE/ManE.htm
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Miér Sep 14, 2011 3:25 am

[quote="HERJUF"]reconstrucción forense de la cara del hombre E




Qué bueno!!
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Miér Sep 14, 2011 7:43 pm

HERJUF escribió:
Aicha escribió:
HERJUF escribió:
Fotos de national Geographic




http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/series/egypt-unwrapped/3914/Photos#tab-Photos/3
No se, pero podría ser que el desencaje de la mandíbula se deba a la relajación muscular post-mortem, creo que a muchos cadáveres les pasa...O también podría ser que su expresión sea el reflejo de una muerte violenta o dolorosa pale quien sabe...

podría ser, si

No parece simplemente una flacidez o relajación muscular en las facciones, también soy reacio a especuladoras interpretaciones que buscan más el morbo que la realidad pero aún así, creo que hay algo más, sea como fuera ese personaje se vió involucrado en algo turbio supuestamente y cabe pensar que resultara muerto por ello, por tanto creo que un poco de ambas.

Hemos visto rostros parecidos con abruptas expresiones como la reina Inhapi o Ramsés I pero no vemos esa impresión de "horror". la relajación de miembros y musculos es perceptible en todas las momias en mayor o menos medida pero este personaje, o bien 'murió' así o más bien, hicieron porque su imagen perdurara con esa expresión pavorosa.

Saludos
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Miér Sep 14, 2011 7:48 pm

[quote="Aicha"]
HERJUF escribió:
reconstrucción forense de la cara del hombre E




Qué bueno!!

Esto de las reconstrucciones está genial! permite dar con los rasgos que pudieron tener en vida personajes momificados gracias a los avances tecnológicos.

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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Miér Sep 14, 2011 8:24 pm

Ramses User Maat Ra escribió:
HERJUF escribió:
Aicha escribió:
HERJUF escribió:
Fotos de national Geographic




http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/series/egypt-unwrapped/3914/Photos#tab-Photos/3
No se, pero podría ser que el desencaje de la mandíbula se deba a la relajación muscular post-mortem, creo que a muchos cadáveres les pasa...O también podría ser que su expresión sea el reflejo de una muerte violenta o dolorosa pale quien sabe...

podría ser, si

No parece simplemente una flacidez o relajación muscular en las facciones, también soy reacio a especuladoras interpretaciones que buscan más el morbo que la realidad pero aún así, creo que hay algo más, sea como fuera ese personaje se vió involucrado en algo turbio supuestamente y cabe pensar que resultara muerto por ello, por tanto creo que un poco de ambas.

Hemos visto rostros parecidos con abruptas expresiones como la reina Inhapi o Ramsés I pero no vemos esa impresión de "horror". la relajación de miembros y musculos es perceptible en todas las momias en mayor o menos medida pero este personaje, o bien 'murió' así o más bien, hicieron porque su imagen perdurara con esa expresión pavorosa.

Saludos


Hola! En realidad no se considera una expresión pavorosa, sino el producto de una mala momificación.

Sea quién fuere este personaje fué momificado tratando de imitar la técnica egipcia, pero al estilo que se hacía en el extranjero. Muy probablemente fuera un egipcio muerto fuera de su tierra.

Hay estudios sobre esta momia que demuestran que no se trato de ningún castigo ni nada parecido. Por ejemplo, el cuero de oveja aún tenía pelo adherido, lo que significa que había sido correctamente tratado o curtido. No tenemos datos de que fuera costumbre egipcia castigar a los muertos envolviéndoles en un cuero ovino, pero en las culturas donde sí lo era, el cadáver del castigado solía envolverse en un cuero sin tratar.

Como sea, para cualquier egipcio, envolver un cadáver en un cuero de oveja era una falta de respeto hacia el dios Amon. Muy al contrario de lo que se dice, los cueros ovinos no eran impuros, sino que se consideraban la piel de Amon (dónde vivía el dios), por eso no se usaban en los enterramientos. Un egipcio que momificara un cuerpo usando una piel ovina incurriría en una falta contra su dios, ningún sacerdote egipcio lo haría.

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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Jue Sep 15, 2011 3:54 am

Pavor debió sentir quién lo vio por primera vez! O como dices los que llevaron a cabo el embalsamamiento no eran profesionales egipcios o bien se 'favoreció' que quedara tan guapo... o ambas cosas. Pudiera ser que la expresión fuera forzada post mortem. Por otra parte su muerte no parece ser precisamente natural.

De todos modos era extendida la práctica de envolver el cuerpo de un difunto que no pudiera ser amortajado adecuadamente sobretodo en el extranjero, con cuero pero ¿no era más común que fuera con piel bovina? esto se habló en otro tema hace un tiempo, no recuerdo por donde anda...

Quizás y de ser así, la ofensa a Amon formaba parte de su tormento, para los egipcios era peor infringir castigo a los elementos que pudiera necesitar en la otra vida que al propio vivo por ello no hace falta que este hombre presente signos de violencia siquiera si realmente es quién dicen que es, los castigos simbólicos eran bien temidos.

Saludos
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Jue Sep 15, 2011 5:37 am

En realidad si se hubiera intentado castigar el hombre presentándole en el más allá envuelto en un cuero de carnero, no se le habría privado de inscripciones.

El dios Amón no lo hubiera identificado de cualquier manera, como para tomar una represalia por haberse presentado envuelto en su piel.

Lo mismo, también sería un acto irrespetuoso por parte del sacerdote que realizara la momificación. Así que el castigo también hubiera recaído en éste.

Por otra parte en cuerpo no se encontraba envuelto en un cuero ovino, sino en una capa gruesa de vendas de lino. La momia estaba recostada sobre un cuero.

Otro dato a tener en cuenta es que tiene ciertas características propias de la dinastía XVIII y no de los tiempos de Ramsés III.


Bob Brier sinceramente es un egiptólogo que me pone nerviosa. Yo lo he citado muchas veces porque es egiptólogo y porque tiene opiniones muy coherentes. Sin embargo, a veces se embarca en especulaciones poco felices como cuándo afirmaba con total convicción que Akhenaton padeció Marfan, situación que después los análisis médicos desmentirían totalmente.
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Jue Sep 15, 2011 7:22 pm


Existe un dato que podría ayudar si lo encontramos: ¿alguien sabe cuál era el destino de los cadáveres de los condenados a muerte? Yo he leído por ahí que se incineraban como una forma de hacerlos desaparecer totalmente. No sé si eso es exactamente correcto, pero la afirmación no está fuera de lugar si tenemos en cuénta los lagos de fuego a los cuáles eran arrojados los condenados y enemigos del faraón en el mito del Amduat.

Si fuera así, sería interesante conocer si el mismo destino tenían los cuerpos de los condenados al "suicidio" obligatorio.

confused
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Vie Sep 16, 2011 10:57 pm

SHADY escribió:
En realidad si se hubiera intentado castigar el hombre presentándole en el más allá envuelto en un cuero de carnero, no se le habría privado de inscripciones.

El dios Amón no lo hubiera identificado de cualquier manera, como para tomar una represalia por haberse presentado envuelto en su piel.

Lo mismo, también sería un acto irrespetuoso por parte del sacerdote que realizara la momificación. Así que el castigo también hubiera recaído en éste.

Por otra parte en cuerpo no se encontraba envuelto en un cuero ovino, sino en una capa gruesa de vendas de lino. La momia estaba recostada sobre un cuero.

Otro dato a tener en cuenta es que tiene ciertas características propias de la dinastía XVIII y no de los tiempos de Ramsés III.

Es extraño, ¿por qué el cuero sobre el lino entonces? ¿hay algo más de una mera constumbre aplicada en tierras extrañas? en ocasiones es muy delgada la linea entre protección de maldición. Cierto es que para hablar con mayor acierto de castigos y poder incluso especular con ellos deberíamos saber si realmente este hombre es quién Brier supone y afirma que es.


SHADY escribió:
Bob Brier sinceramente es un egiptólogo que me pone nerviosa. Yo lo he citado muchas veces porque es egiptólogo y porque tiene opiniones muy coherentes. Sin embargo, a veces se embarca en especulaciones poco felices como cuándo afirmaba con total convicción que Akhenaton padeció Marfan, situación que después los análisis médicos desmentirían totalmente.

Razz Razz Me ha hecho mucha gracia ese apunte, quizás es el nerviosismo que provoca la contradicción entre trabajo científico serio en egiptologia como en aventuradas afirmaciones tomadas por los pelos y con tintes especulativos, en consecuencia más adecuados a reportajes de documental que a registros egiptologicos puros y duros.

Al igual que otros profesionales de la egiptologia, Brier me merece respeto y credibilidad en gran parte de sus investigaciones y consecuentes afirmaciones en otras simplemente se desmarca, ya sea por la millonada que se lleva por series de documentales ávidos de carnaza egiptologica o por propia desmarcación personal, no lo sé, es un excéntrico, momificó con sus propias manos el cuerpo de un hombre que donó su cuerpo a tal fin.

Creo cada vez más que nuestro personaje 'E' no es más que otra victima de ese consumismo especulador que el mercado necesita para seguir vendiendo ese Egipto tan,tan, tan sumamente mágico y misterioso como solo los documentales podrían hacerlo.

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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Vie Sep 16, 2011 11:13 pm

SHADY escribió:

Existe un dato que podría ayudar si lo encontramos: ¿alguien sabe cuál era el destino de los cadáveres de los condenados a muerte? Yo he leído por ahí que se incineraban como una forma de hacerlos desaparecer totalmente. No sé si eso es exactamente correcto, pero la afirmación no está fuera de lugar si tenemos en cuénta los lagos de fuego a los cuáles eran arrojados los condenados y enemigos del faraón en el mito del Amduat.

Si fuera así, sería interesante conocer si el mismo destino tenían los cuerpos de los condenados al "suicidio" obligatorio.

confused

Ahí has dado con una cuestión muy interesante! quemar un cuerpo es destruirlo, qué peor castigo que privarlo de la otra vida? matándolo y quemandolo le niegas esta vida y la venidera, lo leí en una ocasión como también leí de pasada una relación de los condenados a muerte con Osiris sobretodo en los primeros tiempos, siendo los sentenciados inmolados frente a su cenotafio. También leí alguna vez la decapitación como medio de ajusticiamiento y el ahogamiento en elNilo , además de alimañas, y animales carroñeros... buscaré a ver si veo algo útil al tema
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Vie Sep 16, 2011 11:24 pm

Bridget McDermott en su libro La Guerra en el Antiguo Egipto habla de los prisioneros de guerra y muertos en lucha en la batalla entregados a los buitres como forma de destrucción material y simbólica del enemigo pero esto es en tiempos de guerra, falta algo de ejecutados... cabe preguntarse también a qué condenas se limitaba la aplicación de estas penas.

Saludos
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MensajeTema: Re: El hombre E   Sáb Sep 17, 2011 3:55 am

Entregarlos a las aves carroñeras era una forma de regeneración, el ave carroñera se alimenta de lo muerto y con eso vive.

La decapitación se utilizó en las primeras dinastías y en tiermpos predinásticos. Del ahogamiento se habla, pero parece que solamente existe el relato de un caso (y los condenados ya estaban muertos), por lo que no era el método más común. La muerte por fuego se usó en alguna ocasión, como en los tiempos de Amenhotep II.

La pena capital solía ejecutarse por empalamiento.

Francamente me cuesta creer que se hubiera momificado mal o bien los cuerpos de los condenados en la conspiración del harén de Ramsés III.

El estilo de momificación de esta momia es bien propio del que se practicaba en el extranjero tratando de imitar la técnica egipcia. Eso explicaría que el ataúd no tenga inscripciones, tal vez quienes lo sepultaron ni siquiera conocían la escritura egipcia.

Luego lo más curioso es como aparece ese ataúd en la DB 320. Si lo colocaron los sacerdotes que hicieron el traslado de las momias, seguramente no sabían ni a quién pertenecía, pero debía estar en alguna tumba importante como para presumir que merecía ser preservado de los ladrones. Y es la hipótesis más posible, porque la otra opción es que hubiera sido depositado en el escondrijo durante épocas muy posteriores.
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